Research Using Biometrics Ltd Sensors and Instrumentation in UK
Keywords: 2017, Dynamometer, Upper Extremity, Grip, UK
Petra Fischer ,Alek Pogosyan, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L.Green, Tipu Z.Aziz, Jonathan Hyam, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, Michael Samuel, Keyoumars Ashkan, Peter Brown, Huiling Tan; Experiental Neurology 2
Two Biometrics Ltd G200 Dynamometers were used with a third party EMG system for bilateral grip measurements in the study of patients with Parkinson's disease.
P. K. Thain, C. M. Bleakley, A. C. S. Mitchell. Journal of Athletic Training
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors (connected to the DataLlNK unit) are used to record muscle activity throughout this study. Each participant is subjected to a simulated ankle sprain followed by either a wet-ice or cold-water treatment, a group of the subject population received no treatment for the experimental control. Muscle reaction data is presented and discussed to confirm which treatment option is best.
D. Komninos. Physiotherapy UK 2015, Conference 7 Trade Exhibition, BT Convention Centre Liverpool, 16-17 October 2015
Intra and inter rater reliability is analysed in this study involving a clinical test practised with and without an external stabilisation device. Biometrics Goniometers (connected to the K800) verify elbow extension range of motion for each subject under each test condition. Results from this study are used to support a test condition which does not include use of the stabilisation device.
P. Tsaklis, N. Malliaropoulos, J. Mendiguchia, V. Korakakis, K. Tsapralis, D. Pyne, P. Malliaras. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2015:6 209-217
The SG150 goniometer (connected to the DataLOG) is positioned on all subjects for the duration of an exercise session. A pre-set exercise routine is strictly followed by each subject in order to determine the effects of certain exercises on the hamstring muscle. Goniometer data is used to monitor knee flexion throughout exercise.
Keywords: UK, EMG, Sport Science, Lower Extremity, 2015
J. Sinclair, P. J. Taylor, J. Hebron, D. Brooks, H. T. Hurst, S. Atkins. Journal of Human Kinetics volume 46/2015, 19-27
Two EMG normalisation methods are compared in this study. Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are applied to subjects completing a pre-selected cycling protocol. Both EMG normalisation techniques are applied to the data in order to determine which is most reliable.
R. Hardie, R. Haskew, J. Harris, G. Hughes. Journal of Human Kinetics volume 45/2015, 39-47
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are positioned bilaterally across the shoulders and spine of subjects. Each subject is instructed to walk normally while wearing a variety of bags in order to determine if bag style and carrying method has an effect on muscle activity and subsequently contributes to lower back pain. All EMG data is analysed via the Biometrics Ltd DataLlNK Analysis Software (built in RMS filter) and compared to determine the "safest" bag style and carrying method.
J. Sinclair, J. Toth, S. J. Hobbs. Kinesiology 45(2015)1:11-18
This study utilises acceleration data to help determine the optimum footwear when performing depth jumps. The Biometrics ACL300 Accelerometer is applied to the tibia of each subject to determine tibial acceleration during each movement; this data is combined with other measured parameters taken from subjects each wearing selected footwear to confirm if there is an ideal footwear option as well as determining the influence that footwear has on this jump.
Keywords: Goniometers SG110 Social Science Psychology Clinical Applications UK 2014
Joanne Lumsden, Lynden K. Miles, C. Neil Macrae. Frontiers in Psychology 2014, 5:1064.
Subjects involved in this study were requested to intentionally synchronize or avoid synchronizing with another participant performing the same exercise. Goniometer data was collected to confirm whether the synchronization/synchronization-avoidance was performed correctly, Biometrics Ltd SG110 Goniometers were placed on the elbows of the subjects and compared post data-acquisition. The goniometer results are presented with mood and self-esteem data for discussion.
Katie L Meadmore, Timothy A. Exell, Emma Hallewell, Ann-Marie Hughes, Chris T. Freeman, Mustafa Kutlu, Valerie Benson, Eric Rogers, Jane H. Burridge. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation 2014, 11:105
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are placed on the wrist of subjects completing a variety of tasks focused on reaching and opening and closing of the hand, all subjects were stroke patients meeting a specified study criterion. Goniometer data is presented as a statistical comparison to evaluate the benefits of functional electrical stimulation in upper limb stroke rehabilitation.
Keywords: DataLOG Goniometer EMG Spasticity Stroke Upper Limb Physiotherapy Clinical Applications Spasticity in Stroke UK 2014
Cameron Lindsay, Julie Simpson, Sissi Ispoglou, Steve G. Sturman, Ananad D. Pandyan. Trials 2014, 15:12
This proposed study involves the use of Biometrics Ltd Goniometers, connected to the DataLOG unit for recording maximum wrist/elbow flexion and extension. Data will be collected at determined time intervals following stroke, some of the patients will be receiving treatment throughout the duration of the study and some patients will receive a placebo (no treatment). All data collected will be analysed to provide values for spasticity over a period of time which will verify the clinical effects of treatment.
Aamd M. Alasker. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering Vol. 07 No.13 (2014), Article iD: 51289
EMG data is collected from subjects throughout the duration of the study using Biometrics Ltd EMG electrodes connected to the Biometrics DataLINK unit. All subjects are instructed to perform a variety of computer based tests following training to confirm muscle performance in healthy individuals. The results from this study are discussed to highlight the importance of applying EMG control technology as a clinical rehabilitation technique for patients with poor muscle control particularly stroke/spinal cord patients.
Ricci Hannah, Claire Minshull, Stephanie L. Smith, Jonathon P. Folland. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2013.
Joint stabilisation is monitored throughout this study by focusing on each phase of muscle activation. Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used bilaterally on all study participants to quantify knee joint angle during flexion and extension. The Goniometer data is fundamental to determine joint angle when the hamstrings and quadriceps are active to confirm whether or not these muscles are balanced in regards to their respective explosive forces, the results are discussed to consider the importance of this study in terms of risk of knee injury.
Keywords: ACL300 Accelerometer Biomechanics Clinical Applications Neurology UK 2013
John-Stuart Brittain, Penny Probert-Smith, Tipu Z. Aziz, Peter Brown. Current Biology 23, 436-440, March 4, 2013
Biometrics Ltd Accelerometers are used to assess tremor in patients suffering from tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease. The ACL300 Accelerometer was secured to each subject throughout the duration of the study which aims to determine the effect of TACS stimulation frequency on tremor. A secondary experiment confirms the relationship between stimulation frequency and tremor which is discussed further.
Keywords: Dynamometer Grip Neurology Parkinson's Disease UK 2013
Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Anam Anzak, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Keyoumars Ashkan, Marko Bogdanovic, Alexander L. Green , Tipu Aziz , Peter Brown. Experimental Neurology 240 (2013) 122-129
This grip analysis study documents a relationship between age and effects of medication within a group of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Each subject is instructed to grip (using the Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer) after an LED cue. Age matched healthy (non-Parkinson's disease) subjects are included as a control group. Multiple force parameters are documented including time delay (from cue to grip) and grip strength over the experimental period.
J. Marchi, D. Blana, E. K. Chadwick. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
This study aims to determine the mobility and stability differences amongst subjects having experienced shoulder dislocation. Biometrics Ltd. EMG sensors are applied over multiple muscle locations while study participants complete an exercise protocol. EMG data is recorded and discussed to show that the difference in response between previously injured and non-injured individuals is significant.
Peter K. Thain, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S.Mitchell. 2012. BASES Biomechanics Interest Group 27th Easter Meeting
Muscle reaction time was monitored during this study using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit. Study participants were instructed to stand barefoot on two platforms, one of which moves to simulate ankle sprain, EMG sensors were attached to the lower limb to document the muscle reaction time. A wet ice treatment was applied midway through data acquisition to confirm if this 'ice application'? effects the time taken for each of the three muscles studied to react thus affecting the performance/risk of injury of the athlete/subject.
Keywords: Goniometer Hamstring Flexibility Bowen Technique Lower Extremity Randomised Control Trial UK 2011
Michelle Marr, Julian Baker, Nicky Lambon, Jo Perry. 2011, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 15, 281-290
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were used to document flexibility for this study examining the effects of using the Bowen technique. Each subject was instructed to raise their dominant leg into the air to the point of mild tension in the thigh; this end-point measurement was used in the final comparisons. Participants reached this point before and after therapy to record not only the effect of the treatment but also the long term effects over a period of time.
N Ball, J Scurr; Journal Of Exercise Physiology, Vol 14 Number 4 August 2011
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG with analysis software and SX230 EMG used to measure EMG activity to assess the effect of different muscle actions, velocity, and load on the bilateral EMG response of the triceps surae.
Keywords: DataLOG P3X8 SX230 EMG Mastication UK 2011
H Jan Smit, E K Kemsley, H S Tapp, C Jeya, K Henry; Appetite - 1168 Feb 2011
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG used to measure bilateral EMG activity of masseter muscle and anterior portion temporalis muscles during chewing of food.
Keywords: Spasticity ARAT EMG Neurology Goniometers Stroke Muscle Activity Force Range of Motion Stiffness Pain UE Wrist Contracture UK 2011
S Malhotra, AD Pandyan, S Rosewilliam, C Roffe, H Hermens; Clinical Rehabilitation 2011; 25: 184-191
Biometrics Ltd equipment is used to identify a relationship between upper limb functional recovery and the development of spasticity in stroke patients over a quantified time. A combination of Biometrics sensors including Goniometers and EMG probes were used along with a force transducer to evaluate range of motion muscle activity and force simultaneously during exercise. With this data, clinicians are capable of studying the development of spasticity and wrist contractures over time in addition to confirming the relationship between spasticity, function and contracture development.
A Greenhalgh, J Sinclair, A Leat, N Chockaligam; Footwear Science Volume 3 Supplement 1 September 2011
Biometrics DataLOG and ACL300 Accelerometer used to measure impact shocks runners experienced in varying conditions.
Keywords: Grip Dynamometer Reliability Strength Arthritis UE UK 2010
D Kennedy, C Jerosch-Herold, M Hickson; Journal of Hand Therapy Oct-Dec 2010; 23:384-391
A Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer was used to measure the test-retest reliability of one vs. three trials. The Implications for Practice included: "The results of this study demonstrate levels of test-retest reliability (ICC -0.91) for the evaluation of one and the mean of three trials of pain-free grip strength tested using the Biometrics E-LINK evaluation system in participants with RA....A change in grip strength as small as 1.6 kg may be indicative of meaningful clinical change in RA patients; therefore, grip should be evaluated with an instrument with adequate sensitivity to detect this magnitude of change."
Keywords: Spasticity Botulinum Neurology Toxin Stroke Elbow Wrist Arm Function UE Grip Strength Range of Motion EMG Goniometer Dynamometer DataLINK ARAT UK 2010
Elizabeth Cousins, Anthony Ward, Christine Roffe, Lesley Rimington, Anand Pandyan; clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 501-513
A variety of Biometrics Ltd sensors are used to measure arm function and spasticity in stroke patients. Sensors used include the Dynamometer, EMG probes, Goniometers and a custom built, hand held force transducer all connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit. Data was recorded at distinct time intervals post stroke in order to document arm function recovery of two control groups, one group were administered a low dose of botulinum toxin early on after stroke while the other was administered a placebo.
C M Comer, M I Johnson, P R Marchant, A C Redmond, H A Bird, P G Conaghan; Archives Of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Volume 91 Issue 1 p15-19 January 2010
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG, Goniometer, and Analysis Software used to measure spinal angle during testing of walking tolerance.
Keywords: DataLOG W4X8 SX230 EMG Robot Teleoperation UK 2010
H Farid, G Nia, J A R Cannan, M A Oskoei, H Hu, University OF Essex Publication CES-507
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG sensors used to record human EMG signals which in turn are used to control a robotic arm.
Keywords: DataLINK EMG Analysis Software Greece UK 2009
Gregorios Krekoukias, Nicola J. Petty, Liz Cheek. 2009. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 19 39-45
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are used to document muscle activity in this study analysing the effects of lumbar spine mobilisation. All EMG sensors were connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit and data collected was filtered using the DataLINK software. All subjects within this study were instructed to follow the specified protocol; their EMG data was recorded before and after posteroanterior mobilisation. The subject population was divided into three groups (placebo, mobilisation and control) in order to allow for a comparison analysis.
Keywords: Goniometer Pain Joint Damage Knee Function USA UK 2009
David T Felson, K Douglas Gross, Michael C Nevitt, Mei Yang, Nancy E Lane, James C Torner, Cora E Lewis, Michael V Hurley. 2009. Arthritis Care and Research Volume 61, Issue 8, pages 1070-1076
All participants of this study either suffered with osteoarthritis in the knee joint or were at high risk of it. Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were attached to the right knee of the subject population in order to document results from the analysis. A guided knee joint angle was held for a predetermined time and recorded, the participants were instructed to recreate this angle from memory and communicate pain ratings. Goniometer data was then combined with radiographic grades.
E Cousins, A B Ward, C Roffe, L D Rimington, A D Pandyan; Physical Therapy Volume 89 Number 7 p688-697
Biometrics Ltd DataLINK, Goniometers and EMG sensors used as a neurophysiological measure of joint angle and EMG activity in post stroke patients treated for spasticity with Botulinum toxin.
Keywords: Grip Dynamometer Pinchmeter Strength Plastic Surgery UE UK 2008
A Mishra, I Whitaker, I Josty; Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol 61, No 6, December 2008
The assessment of the functional results at 18 months post surgery included grip strength measurements using a Biometrics Ltd E-LINK dynamometer.
Keywords: Goniometer Knee Whole Body Vibration Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Lower Extremity UK Bulgaria 2008
K N Mileva, J L Bowtell, A R Kossev; Experimental Physiology 2008 94.1 p103-116
Biometrics Ltd Goniometer used to measure knee flexion angles whilst subjects performed squat exercise during and after whole body vibration with motor-evoked potentials elicited in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Keywords: DataLINK EMG SX230 UE UK 2008
MA Oekoei, H Hu and JQ Gan; University Of Essex, UK; 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference Vancouver, Canada, August 20 -24 2008
Biometrics Ltd SX230 electrodes used to measure muscle activity in four locations on forearm to measure whilst playing computer games.
Keywords: Spasticity Goniometers EMG DataLINK Neurology Stroke Clinical Applications Biomechanics Range of Motion Muscle Activity Force ARAT UK 2008
Sweta Malhotra, Elizabeth Cousins, Anthony Ward, Charles Day, Peter Jones, Christine Roffe, Anand Pandyan; Clinical Rehabilitation 2008; 22: 1105-1115
Spasticity is measured at the wrist flexors of stroke patients using a combination of Biometrics Ltd EMG probes and Goniometers along with a force transducer connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit. Force, range of motion and muscle activity were measured simultaneously during patient exercise in order to confirm the relationship between biomechanical, clinical and neurophysiological measurements necessary to best manage and assess spasticity.
Keywords: Grip Dynamometer Strength Orthopedic Surgery UE UK 2007
AJ Crowey, M R Carmont, B Tins, D J Ford; Injury Extra 2007, 38, 90-93
Case presentation of a rare FCR rupture. Grip strength on the right compared to the non-affected side was measured using an E-LINK dynamometer.
Keywords: Grip Dynamometer Pinchmeter Strength Goniometer Range of Motion Arthritis UE UK 2007:
A Goodson, A McGregor, J Douglas, P Taylor; Manual Therapy 12 (2007) 144-152
This study explored the use of a commercially available system, the Biometrics E-LINK Evaluation System, for determining hand function in RA and OA patients, in terms of its reproducibility and practicability. Impairment of physiological hand function was assessed using the Biometrics E-Link instruments - Dynamometer and Pinchmeter for strength measurements, small and large electrogoniometers for finger and wrist ROM measurements. "To summarize, pinch, grip and ROM measurements are simple and quick to perform and the findings of this study support the routine clinical use of these measures ..."
Keywords: Grip Dynamometer Strength Orthopedic UE UK 2007
O Alizadehkhaiyat, A Fisher, G Kemp, K Vishwanathan, S Fostick; Journal of Orthoaedic Research December 2007
This study investigated strength, fatigability, and activity of upper limb musculature to elucidate the role of muscular imbalance in the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Grip strength was measured using a Biometrics Ltd dynamometer.
Keywords: DataLOG Vibrational Analysis Ergonomics Health and Safety UK 2005
Andrew N Rimell, Neil J Mansfield. 2005. Presented at the 40th United Kingdom Conference on Human Response to Vibration.
This study aimed to document the vibrational effects of machine operator seats, the Biometrics DataLOG unit is used as the supporting instrumentation for all sensors used. All participants were measured before the experiment begun; a sub analysis of seat type is also presented within the results whereby the participants remained constant to ensure a fair comparison.
Keywords: DataLOG Accelerometers Vibration UK 2005
Presented at the 40th United Kingdom Conference on Human Response to Vibration - Liverpool UK 13th to15th September 2005
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and Accelerometers used to measure single and multi-axis vibration in vehicle seats.
Keywords: Gonio M180 Knee Lower Extremity Gait Biomechanics Clinical Applications Arthroplasty Orthopedic Surgery UK 2005
PJ Rowe, CM Myles, R Nutton; Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2005, 13(2):131-138
This study used Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers to evaluate active and functional knee excursion of patients before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to determine whether TKA restores quality of life related to functional activities of daily living.
Anand D Pandyan, Christopher IM Price, Michael P Barnes, Garth R Johnson; Clinical Rehabilitation 2003; 17: 290-294
In this study, blind resistance to passive movement measurements are taken using the Biometrics Ltd Goniometer along with a force transducer; data is then graded using the Ashworth Scale and Modified Ashworth Scale, all subjects are stroke patient volunteers. An investigation comparing the non-impaired arm with the impaired arm is presented as a sub analysis. Results are discussed following a statistical analysis to confirm the validity of the Ashworth scale with respect to biomechanical data.
Keywords: Gonio Elbow UE Botox Stroke Spasticity Research Neurology Clinical Applications Clinical Rehabilitation UK Switzerland 2002
A Pandyan, P Vuadens, F van Wijck, S Stark, G Johnson, M Barnes; Clinical Rehabilitation 2002, 16:654-660
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer incorporated into a measurement system to quantify the clinical efficacy of botulinum toxin type A in treating elbow spasticity in a unilateral stroke population.
The objective of this study was to compare quadriceps sensorimotor function, lower limb functional performance and disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects, and to investigate the efficacy and safety of a brief rehabilitation program. Proprioception acuity was estimated from the acuity of reproduction of knee joint position sense measured with a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer.
PJ Rowe, CM Myles, SJ Hillmann, ME Hazlewood; Physiotherapy Sept 2001, vol 87, no9 :479-488
The measurement of the Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometer were investigated using a series of controlled experiments including comparison to a TV motion analysis system while measuring knee movement during gait.
Movement of the knee in osteoarthritis: the use of electrogoniometry to assess function
This study 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers concluded: 'Electrogoniometry is relatively inexpensive, can be performed in a normal clinical setting with minimal inconvenience to the patient, and may prove to be a valuable objective tool for comparative evaluation of different prostheses or surgical techniques for total knee replacement.?
Keywords: Spasticity Modified Neurology Ashworth Scale UE Elbow Goniometer Speed Range of Motion Stroke UK 2001
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used simultaneously with a force transducer to verify resistance to passive motion. In order to quantify spasticity, blind data from the resistance to passive motion test is used together with the Modified Ashworth Scale to identify the 'catch' phenomenon. Findings regarding the relationship between the Modified Ashworth Scale and patient resistance to passive motion are presented. A statistical analysis is documented comparing the impaired arm with the non-impaired arm of participants in this study.
R Ferguson, P Aagaard, D Ball, A Sargeant, J Bangsbo; Journal of Applied Physiology 2000, 89:1912-1918
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to for continuous measurement of knee joint angle and the angle between the lower limb and the connecting bar attached to the pedal arm of an ergometer.
Keywords: Gonio Ankle Lower Extremity Reliability Biomechanics UK USA 1996
K Rome, F Cowieson; Foot Ankle International 1996, Vol 17, No. 1, pp 28-32
This study investigated the reliability of three Goniometers, the universal, fluid, and Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers, in the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using 10 healthy volunteers and five observers. The results demonstrate that when using a highly standardized procedure, the flexible electrogoniometer was within an accepted criterion for reliability, suggesting good intra device reliability.
M Rawes, J Richardson, J Dias; Journal of Hand Surgery - British and European Volume 1996 21B(5): 600-603
A new electrogoniometer technique, using a Biometrics ltd electrogoniometer, is described for the measurement of wrist movements, including circumduction, with the results being displayed as figures. Clinical validation was performed and the system found to be highly accurate and reliable.
M Hazelwood, J Brown, P Rowe, P Salter; Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1994, 36:661-673
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and footswitches were used in this study to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation of the anterior tibial muscles of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy on the gait pattern and the range of active and passive lower extremity movement. dorsiflexion of the ankle. Foot switches were placed under the sole and heel of the foot and simultaneously recorded the pattern of contact of the foot with the floor so that the temporal parameters of the gait cycle could be analyzed. The use of electrogoniometers for gait analysis proved successful, and could provide therapists and physicians with a relatively cheap and versatile means of quantitatively monitoring gait pattern and the effects of therapy.
K Rome, A Clark; British Journal of Podiatric Medicine 1994, 49(2): 19-23
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used in this study is to evaluate a short term stretching programme for ankle equinus, using a high load, brief stretch technique. The single case study has demonstrated the flexible electrogoniometer as a reliable instrument which is easy to use in the clinical setting.
J Goodwin, C Clark, J Deakes, D Burdon, C Lawrence; Disability and Rehabilitation 1992; Vol 14, No.1; pp 10-15
This investigation compared the reliability and interchangeable use of three currently available Goniometers - a universal Goniometer, a fluid Goniometer, and a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer. Three consecutive readings of the active range of movement of the right elbow joint were taken from each of 23 healthy female volunteers; three experienced observers each used each type of Goniometer on two occasions. Significant intertester differences were found to exist for both the universal and fluid Goniometers. However, no significant differences were found between any of the testers with respect to the electrogoniometer. It therefore appears reasonable to suggest that, with respect to reducing intertester differences, the electrogoniometer is preferable.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Datalogger Lower Extremity UK 1990
S Sockalingham, J Barbenel, D Queen; CARE Science and Practice, vol 8, no 2: 75-79
An integrated study on the performance of bandages which related pressures generated by the bandages to mechanical laboratory tests has highlighted the influence of posture on the interface pressures generated by these devices. The continuous ambulatory pressure monitoring system consisted of three elements, the pressure sensing device, a Biometrics Ltd Goniometer to determine the position of the leg, and the Biometrics Ltd Datalogger for recording the output of the measuring devices. The Goniometer allowed the stand/sit/lie sequence to be identified relatively easily. The effect of posture was also seen in the long-term measurements.
Keywords: Gonio Hip Knee Lower Extremity Clinical Clinical Applications Biomechanics Paediatrics Measurements Gait Reliability UK 1989
A Nicol; Clinical Rehabilitation 1989, 3: 1-9
This paper is about the development of the Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and its clinical applications: The device is very lightweight and the electrogoniometers can be worn beneath clothing, so the subject can move without inhibition. ...Tests using angular motion of the hip and knee joints...assessment of gait ...gait of amputees and patients cerebral palsy...assessing the postoperative performance of arthritic patients receiving the Souter-Strathclyde elbow prosthesis. It can be seen that electrogoniometers can provide information otherwise not available in a clinical environment.
Keywords: Gonio Hip Knee Bilateral Lower Extremity Clinical Applications Biomechanics Gait UK 1988
P Rowe, A Nicol, I Kelly; Clinical Biomechanics 1988, 4:68-72
Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometers were used to record the motion of both hips and knees in total hip replacement patients. Four flexible electrogoniometers are used to measure the flexion-extension angles of both hips and both knees. The electrogoniometer system has proved capable of quantifying the functional status of hip replacement patients simply and economically within the clinical environment.