Taher Afsharnezhad, Samane Faghihi, Amir Hazrati, Khadije Bahrami
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CWI (cold water immersion) on dynamic balance and anaerobic power, as well as neuromusculsr changes in karate kumite fighters after acompetition. EMG was measured using a Biometrics Ltd DataLINK and SX230 EMG sensors. A RMS (root mean square filter was applied to the data using the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK software.
Lely A. Luengas, Pedro R. Vizcaya, Giovanni S?nchez
This paper presents a methodology to obtain the Static Alignment Model for transtibial amputees and to study how much the alignment influences the static standing biomechanics. Seven Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the joint angles.
Keywords: 2017, USA, EMG, Lower Extremity, Biomechanics, DataLOG
Justin A. Brantley, Trieu Phat Luu, Sho Nakagome, Jose L. Contreras-Vidal
This study is the first to demonstrate that continous EMG can be used to predict the joint kinematics of the knee and ankle during overground locomotion. Lower extremity EMG (12 channels) was measured using multiple Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and SX230 EMG sensors.
Mona Kermani, Mehri Ghasemi, Abbas Rahimi, Khosro Khademi-Kalantari, Alireza Akbarzadeh-Bghban; Journal of Bodywork & Movement therapies 22 (2018)
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to measure the electrical activity in six lower extremity muscles to determine the difference in muscle use between low heeled and high heeled shoes.
Keywords: 2017, Goniometer, Lower Extremity, France, Neuro
Anett Mau-Moeller , Robert Jacksteit, Mario Jackszis, Frank Feldhege, Matthias Weippert, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Rainer Bader, Ralf Skripitz, Martin Behrens; PLoS ONE 12(5): e0176976 https://doi.org/10.137/journal.pone.0176976
Knee angles were measured using a Biometrics Ltd SG150 goniometer with a third party EMG system in this study of knee osteoarthroses patients.
Keywords: 2017, Lower Extremity, Sports Science, Goniometer, Hong Kong
Chow, Gary C.C. MSc; Yam, Timothy T.T. PT, MPT; Chung, Joanne W.Y. RN, PhD; Fong, Shirley S.M. PT, PhD; Medicine, February 2017, Vol 96, Issue 7
Biometrics Ltd goniometer was used to assess the subjects ability to reproduce a remembered assigned knee angle after having been placed at previously by the assessor. Three trials were performed with 30 second rest intervals.
P. K. Thain, C. M. Bleakley, A. C. S. Mitchell. Journal of Athletic Training
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors (connected to the DataLlNK unit) are used to record muscle activity throughout this study. Each participant is subjected to a simulated ankle sprain followed by either a wet-ice or cold-water treatment, a group of the subject population received no treatment for the experimental control. Muscle reaction data is presented and discussed to confirm which treatment option is best.
Keywords: The Netherlands, Goniometers, SG150, Lower Extremity, Biomechanics, Pediatrics, 2015
H. Haberfehlner, H. Maas, J. Harlaar, l. E. Newsum, J. G. Becher, A. l. Buizer, R. T. Jaspers. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (2015) 12:67
This study focuses on assessing the precision of available knee-moment angle evaluation methods as well as determining the knee-moment angle characteristics in children suffering from spastic cerebral palsy. A Biometrics Ltd Goniometer is used to verify knee angles recorded throughout this study, Goniometer data along with other measured parameters is displayed and discussed to confirm if there are any significant findings in results taken from typically developing children and children with spastic cerebral palsy as well as the measurement error involved.
S. S. M. Fong, S. S. M. Ng, X. Guo, Y. Wang, R. C. K. Chung, G. stat, W. Y. Ki, D. J. Macfarlane. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Oct; 94(41): e1785
This study explores the effect that developmental coordination disorder has on children specifically in regard to lower limb muscle reflexes and postural control. Biometrics EMG sensors are applied to the leg of each subject along with an Accelerometer to record trunk perturbation, both sensor types are connected to the DataLOG unit. The experimental protocol is completed for each subject and results are presented and discussed.
Md. T. l. Khan, T. Kurita. Biomedical Science and Engineering, 2015, Vo. 3, No. 1, 9-14
This study aims to determine if there is a significant difference in muscle activity between younger and older subjects and therefore if age is a contributing factor to knee joint functionality. Biometrics EMG sensors are used to record muscle activity of subjects and this data is presented, compared and discussed.
Keywords: The Netherlands, Goniometers, SGI 10, SG150, Range of Motion, Lower Extremity, Biomechanics, 2015
M. W. Coppieters, L. S. Anderson, R. Johansen, P. K. Giskegjerde, M. Hoivik, S. Vestre, R. J. Nee. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Volume 45, Number 10, October 2015
This study analyses a selection of techniques used to determine range of motion, subjects are instructed to complete several exercises while measurements are recorded. Biometrics Goniometers verify the range of motion for each technique and this data is displayed and compared. Results are discussed to confirm their clinical significance.
P. Tsaklis, N. Malliaropoulos, J. Mendiguchia, V. Korakakis, K. Tsapralis, D. Pyne, P. Malliaras. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 2015:6 209-217
The SG150 goniometer (connected to the DataLOG) is positioned on all subjects for the duration of an exercise session. A pre-set exercise routine is strictly followed by each subject in order to determine the effects of certain exercises on the hamstring muscle. Goniometer data is used to monitor knee flexion throughout exercise.
Keywords: UK, EMG, Sport Science, Lower Extremity, 2015
J. Sinclair, P. J. Taylor, J. Hebron, D. Brooks, H. T. Hurst, S. Atkins. Journal of Human Kinetics volume 46/2015, 19-27
Two EMG normalisation methods are compared in this study. Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are applied to subjects completing a pre-selected cycling protocol. Both EMG normalisation techniques are applied to the data in order to determine which is most reliable.
Keywords: Goniometers DataLOG Active ROM Flexion Extension Acceleration Paediatrics Lower Extremity Clinical Applications Germany 2015
Sandra Hansmann, Susanne M Benseler, Jasmin B Kuemmerle-Deschner. Paediatric Rheumatology (2015) 13:8.
This study concludes that collecting Goniometer data is one of the best ways to find differences between healthy and arthritic knee joints, the maximum flexion and extension values are recorded and from these values, the acceleration and dynamic range of motion are calculated. Biometrics Ltd Goniometers, connected to the DataLOG unit, are used in this study.
Anna Trulsson, Michael Miller, Gert-Ake Hansson, Christina Gummesson, Martin Garwicz. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2015, 16:28.
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers (SG150's) are used to collect knee flexion/extension data for this study assessing the effect of injury on movement, all subjects suffer from an anterior cruciate ligament injury on one side. Goniometer data is presented alongside other measured parameters to give a statistical analysis comparing the injured with the non-injured side.
Amir Pourmoghaddam, Marius Dettmer, Daniel P. O'Conner, William H. Paloski, Charles S. Layne. Parkinson's disease Volume 2015, Article iD: 497825
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors were applied to the subject population throughout the duration of this study. EMG sensors were connected to the DataLINK unit where data was exported and analysed using the SYNERGOS technique. All study participants were in the early stages of Parkinson's disease, EMG data was collected before and after taking an anti-Parkinsonian medication so that the relationship between muscle activation and medication can be determined and discussed.
Keywords: DataLOG Goniometers Knee Extension Biomechanics Lower Extremity Range of Motion Gait Analysis USA 2013
Patricia Teran-Yengle, H. John Yack. 2013. XXIV Congress of the International society of Biomechanics. XV Brazilian Congress of Biomechanics.
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were placed on the knees of study participants, this study aimed to collect knee extension data for a target population over a 6-10 hour period. The Biometrics Ltd DataLOG unit was used to allow for complete data acquisition (save to card mode) while the subjects carried out a typical 'work' day. Data was analysed post collection to quantify knee range of motion and knee extension changes when participating in different activities.
H. Minoonejad, R. Rajabi, E. Ebrahimi-Takamjani, M. H. Alizadeh, A. A. Jamshidi, A. Azhari, E. Fatehi. 2012. World Journal of Sport Sciences 6 (3): 278-285
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used to monitor knee flexion during this study to document the effects of exercise on patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) sufferers. Data was collected before and after a six week period so that a statistical analysis could be carried out comparing results from the control group with the exercise group. The Goniometers were placed on the leg of participants from both subject groups; knee flexion was recorded for a stair climbing activity while pain scores were communicated.
J. Andreasen, C. M. Molgaard, S. Kaalund, S. Lundbye-Christensen, O. Simonsen, M. Voigt. The Foot 23 (2013) 22-28
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used to evaluate the angular position of the foot during this study which aims to analyse how effective treatment for chronic foot pain is. Four treatment groups are identified; Goniometer data is collected before and periodically after treatment in order to determine how effective each treatment programme is. Data is presented and compared to identify which programme showed significant results in reducing pain contributing factors.
Peter K. Thain, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S.Mitchell. 2012. BASES Biomechanics Interest Group 27th Easter Meeting
Muscle reaction time was monitored during this study using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit. Study participants were instructed to stand barefoot on two platforms, one of which moves to simulate ankle sprain, EMG sensors were attached to the lower limb to document the muscle reaction time. A wet ice treatment was applied midway through data acquisition to confirm if this 'ice application'? effects the time taken for each of the three muscles studied to react thus affecting the performance/risk of injury of the athlete/subject.
Keywords: DataLOG Goniometer Lower Extremity Neurology Ankle Knee Hip Gait Analysis Serbia 2012
Ivana Milovanovic, Dejan B. Popovic 2012. Computational Mathematical Methods in Medicine 2012. 649743
Participants of this study had all suffered neurological deficits caused by stroke; subgroups were determined by the time period elapsed since the stroke (less than and more than six months). A variety of Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were used with the DataLOG unit in order to quantify joint movement during a walking exercise. Goniometers were placed on both hips and knees of subjects, the paretic and nonparetic leg was documented and used as the primary analysis, a secondary analysis is presented as a comparison between data collected from the sub-populations.
Timothy A Thrasher, John S Ward, Stanley Fisher 2011. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2011, 8:65
Eight Biometrics Ltd Surface EMG sensors are positioned on the lower limbs of each study participant; all sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit including foot switches (inside the subjects' shoes). An exercise protocol is followed including treadmill walking so that a complete gait analysis data set is acquired. This data is manipulated post data acquisition in order to identify rhythmic locomotor patterns.
Keywords: Goniometer Hamstring Flexibility Bowen Technique Lower Extremity Randomised Control Trial UK 2011
Michelle Marr, Julian Baker, Nicky Lambon, Jo Perry. 2011, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 15, 281-290
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were used to document flexibility for this study examining the effects of using the Bowen technique. Each subject was instructed to raise their dominant leg into the air to the point of mild tension in the thigh; this end-point measurement was used in the final comparisons. Participants reached this point before and after therapy to record not only the effect of the treatment but also the long term effects over a period of time.
N Ball, J Scurr; Journal Of Exercise Physiology, Vol 14 Number 4 August 2011
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG with analysis software and SX230 EMG used to measure EMG activity to assess the effect of different muscle actions, velocity, and load on the bilateral EMG response of the triceps surae.
G J Marquez, J Mon, R M Acero, Jose A Sanchez and M Fernandez-Del-Olmo; The Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 23(5)/1470-1476 2009
This study was designed to determine the effect of different cycling cadences at low intensity and short duration on explosive muscle movements. Data acquisition using Biometrics DataLOG with analysis software, Goniometers and SX230 EMG to measure the joint movements and muscle activity of the leg.
N Kunju, N Kumar, D Pankaj, A Dhawan, DR Amod Kumar; Indian Journal of Biomechanics, Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)
Biometrics Ltd DataLINK and SX230 EMG used to measure EMG activity of Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles whilst subject was walking. Data was analyised using the RMS and Median Frequency filters in the Biometrics Ltd Analysis Software.
Keywords: Goniometer Knee Whole Body Vibration Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Lower Extremity UK Bulgaria 2008
K N Mileva, J L Bowtell, A R Kossev; Experimental Physiology 2008 94.1 p103-116
Biometrics Ltd Goniometer used to measure knee flexion angles whilst subjects performed squat exercise during and after whole body vibration with motor-evoked potentials elicited in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.
P Piriyaprasarth, M Morris, A Winter, A Bialocerkowski; Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:6
This study examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer. The clinical utility of electrogoniometry was also addressed. Data was collected using the Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and analyzed using Biometrics Ltd Analysis Software.
M Arroyo-Morales, N Olea, MM Martinez, A Hidalgo-Lozano, C Ruiz-Rodriguez, L Diaz-Rodriguez; The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008, vol 14, no 10, pp 1223-1229
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors and DataLINK data acquisition system with analysis software was used to quantify muscle activity in the quadriceps in this study to evaluate the effect of massage on neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold after high-intensity exercise.
C Wang, C Schmid, P Hibberd, R Kalish, R Roubenoff, R Rones, A Okparavero, T McAlindon; Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:108
This study examines the effects of a 12 week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching) on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Knee proprioception, which is reduced in KOA was measured using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer with a Biometrics Ltd ADU301 angle display unit during each assessment visit.
S Kasahara, J Ebata, M Takahashi; Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2007; 19:251-256
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeated one-leg heel-rise test method of ankle plantar flexion in MMT with kinematic measuring devices and EMG. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to monitor ankle and knee movements during the test.
Keywords: EMG SX230 Lower Extremity Sports Japan 2007
R Matsuura, H Ogata, T Yunoki, T Arimitsu, T Kimura, T Yano; Journal of Physiological Anthropology 2007, 26:51-57
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to collect lower extremity muscle activity during each of ten cycling sprints.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Lower Extremity Biomechanics Aerospace USA 2006
M Pierre, K Genc, M Litow, B Humphreys, A Rice, C Maender, P Cavanaugh; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:8
Custom made Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were incorporated into a custom built Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit to monitor knee movement in the same subjects on earth and then in space aboard the International Space Station.
Keywords: Gonio SG150 Knee Lower Extremity Gait Clinical Applications Biomechanics Movement Analysis USA 2006
J Huddleston, A Alaiti, D Goldvasser, D Scarborough, a Freiberg, H Rubash, H Malchau, W Harris, D Krebs
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation; Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral knee flexion angles for periods of 7-24 hours.
K Saremi, J Marehbian, X Yan, JP Regnaux, R Elashoff, B Bussel, B Dobkin; Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2006, 20(2)
A biomechanical model was used to compute lower extremity joint kinematics over a short walkway. Surface EMG was acquired with the (Biometrics Ltd) DataLOG system using 8 (Biometrics Ltd) SX230 EMG sensors and analysed using (Biometrics Ltd) version 3 Analysis Software.
Keywords: Gonio Bilateral Knee Gait Ankle Hip Lower Extremity Neuro Rehabilitation Kinesiology Spinal USA 2006
G Sawicki, A Domingo, D Ferris; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:3
The goal of this study was to test the effects of robotic assistance in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury using pneumatic powered ankle-foot orthoses. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral ankle, knee, and hip movement.
Keywords: EMG SX230 Lower Extremity Work Ergonomics Japan 2006
Y Toshihiko, T Kumiko, I Hidemi, K Mikiko, F Kimie, T Katsuyuki, M Katsumi; Journal of Human Nursing Studies 2006, vol 3, pg 11-21
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to measure to muscle function.
Keywords: EMG SX230 Lower Extremity Sports Japan 2006
R Matsuura, H Ogata, T Yunoki, T Arimitsu, T Yano; Journal of Physiological Anthropology 2006, 25:267-273
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to collect lower extremity muscle activity in repeated cycling sprints.
Keywords: Gonio M180 Knee Lower Extremity Gait Biomechanics Clinical Applications Arthroplasty Orthopedic Surgery UK 2005
PJ Rowe, CM Myles, R Nutton; Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2005, 13(2):131-138
This study used Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers to evaluate active and functional knee excursion of patients before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to determine whether TKA restores quality of life related to functional activities of daily living.
The ability to perform 20 or more one-leg heel-rises is considered a 'normal' grade for muscle strength of the ankle plantar flexors, regardless of age and strength. Because muscle strength is closely related to age and sex, the 'normal' test criterion was re-evaluated in different groups categorized by age and sex. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation was used to measure the angle of ankle plantar flexion.
J Petrella, JS Kim, C Tuggle, S Hall, M Bamman; Journal of Applied Physiology 2005, 98:211-220
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in knee extension strength, power, and fatigue using open- and closed-chain testing procedures. Knee position and flexion/extension movement was measured using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and neural activity of the right knee extensors was measured for each of three superficial quadriceps muscles using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors. EMG were digitized at 1000 Hz and electrogoniometer inputs at 500 Hz, and data from each input were analyzed simultaneously using Biometrics Ltd DataLINK with software version 2.0.
M. Perez, B Lungholt, K Nyborg, J Nielsen; Experimental Brain Research 2004, 159:197-205
Training induced changes in cortical excitability may play an important role in rehabilitation of gait in patients with neurological disorders. This study investigated the effect of a 32 minute period of motor skill, non-skill, and passive training involving the ankle muscles on leg motor cortical excitability in healthy humans. Ankle movement was measured using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Ankle Hip Bilateral Lower Extremity Physiology Biomechanics Gait USA 2004
H Huang, D Ferris; Journal of Applied Physiology 2004, 97:1299-1308
In this study Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral hip, knee and ankle movements.
T Lam, C Wolstenholme, M van der Linden, M Pang, J Yang; Journal of Physiology 2003, 553:319-331
This study examined stumbling corrective (tripping) responses to mechanical disturbances applied to the foot during stepping in 33 healthy human infants ages 5-13 months. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the hip and knee movement.
The objective of this study was to compare quadriceps sensorimotor function, lower limb functional performance and disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects, and to investigate the efficacy and safety of a brief rehabilitation program. Proprioception acuity was estimated from the acuity of reproduction of knee joint position sense measured with a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer.
PJ Rowe, CM Myles, SJ Hillmann, ME Hazlewood; Physiotherapy Sept 2001, vol 87, no9 :479-488
The measurement of the Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometer were investigated using a series of controlled experiments including comparison to a TV motion analysis system while measuring knee movement during gait.
Movement of the knee in osteoarthritis: the use of electrogoniometry to assess function
This study 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers concluded: 'Electrogoniometry is relatively inexpensive, can be performed in a normal clinical setting with minimal inconvenience to the patient, and may prove to be a valuable objective tool for comparative evaluation of different prostheses or surgical techniques for total knee replacement.?
J Yang, M Stephens, R Vishram; The Journal of Physiology 1998, 507:927-937
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure hip movement in infants 10 days to 10 months of age.
Keywords: Gonio Hip Knee Ankle Neurology Lower Extremity Gait France 1997
F Danion, M Bonnard, J Pailhous; Experimental Brain Research 1997, 116:525-538
The kinematics of the leg joints, which ensured the displacement of the foot tip, were recorded using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers placed on the hip, knee, and ankle.
Keywords: Gonio Ankle Lower Extremity Reliability Biomechanics UK USA 1996
K Rome, F Cowieson; Foot Ankle International 1996, Vol 17, No. 1, pp 28-32
This study investigated the reliability of three Goniometers, the universal, fluid, and Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers, in the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using 10 healthy volunteers and five observers. The results demonstrate that when using a highly standardized procedure, the flexible electrogoniometer was within an accepted criterion for reliability, suggesting good intra device reliability.
M Hazelwood, J Brown, P Rowe, P Salter; Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1994, 36:661-673
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and footswitches were used in this study to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation of the anterior tibial muscles of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy on the gait pattern and the range of active and passive lower extremity movement. dorsiflexion of the ankle. Foot switches were placed under the sole and heel of the foot and simultaneously recorded the pattern of contact of the foot with the floor so that the temporal parameters of the gait cycle could be analyzed. The use of electrogoniometers for gait analysis proved successful, and could provide therapists and physicians with a relatively cheap and versatile means of quantitatively monitoring gait pattern and the effects of therapy.
K Rome, A Clark; British Journal of Podiatric Medicine 1994, 49(2): 19-23
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used in this study is to evaluate a short term stretching programme for ankle equinus, using a high load, brief stretch technique. The single case study has demonstrated the flexible electrogoniometer as a reliable instrument which is easy to use in the clinical setting.
P Ball, G Johnson; Clinical Biomechanics 1993; 8: 13-19
This paper describes the use of an Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer for clinical assessment of subtalar motion and examines the important aspects of the clinical procedure.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Datalogger Lower Extremity UK 1990
S Sockalingham, J Barbenel, D Queen; CARE Science and Practice, vol 8, no 2: 75-79
An integrated study on the performance of bandages which related pressures generated by the bandages to mechanical laboratory tests has highlighted the influence of posture on the interface pressures generated by these devices. The continuous ambulatory pressure monitoring system consisted of three elements, the pressure sensing device, a Biometrics Ltd Goniometer to determine the position of the leg, and the Biometrics Ltd Datalogger for recording the output of the measuring devices. The Goniometer allowed the stand/sit/lie sequence to be identified relatively easily. The effect of posture was also seen in the long-term measurements.
Keywords: Gonio Hip Knee Lower Extremity Clinical Clinical Applications Biomechanics Paediatrics Measurements Gait Reliability UK 1989
A Nicol; Clinical Rehabilitation 1989, 3: 1-9
This paper is about the development of the Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and its clinical applications: The device is very lightweight and the electrogoniometers can be worn beneath clothing, so the subject can move without inhibition. ...Tests using angular motion of the hip and knee joints...assessment of gait ...gait of amputees and patients cerebral palsy...assessing the postoperative performance of arthritic patients receiving the Souter-Strathclyde elbow prosthesis. It can be seen that electrogoniometers can provide information otherwise not available in a clinical environment.
Keywords: Gonio Hip Knee Bilateral Lower Extremity Clinical Applications Biomechanics Gait UK 1988
P Rowe, A Nicol, I Kelly; Clinical Biomechanics 1988, 4:68-72
Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometers were used to record the motion of both hips and knees in total hip replacement patients. Four flexible electrogoniometers are used to measure the flexion-extension angles of both hips and both knees. The electrogoniometer system has proved capable of quantifying the functional status of hip replacement patients simply and economically within the clinical environment.