Data Acquisition Products

Research Using Biometrics Ltd Sensors and Instrumentation

Biometrics Ltd sensors and instrumentation have been used worldwide for more than 20 years in a variety of research applications.

This list of selected published research studies can be accessed by topic with the links on the left.

Mastication effects on the glycaemic index: impact on variability and practical implications

V Ranawana, MK-S Leow, CJK Henry. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014) 68, 137-139
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are connected to the DataLOG unit which is used in this study to document the effects that Mastication has on the glycaemic index of food. EMG data was fundamental to recording not only the number of times a subject chewed but also mastication rate and other important parameters.
keywords: DataLOG EMG 2014

A Comparison of Flexi-bar and General Lumbar Stabilizing Exercise Effects on Muscle Activity and Fatigue

Jung-Hee Kim, Ki-Hyun So, Yu-Ri Bae, Byoung-Hee Lee. J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 26: 229-233, 2014
Trunk stability was examined during this study with the help of the Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLOG unit. Subjects were instructed to perform several exercises on both stable and unstable surfaces with and without using the flexi-bar training instrument. EMG data was analysed to present a relationship between trunk stability and the exercise/exercise surface.
keywords: DataLOG EMG,trunk stability exercise surface flexi-bar 2014

Knee kinematics during daily standing and walking in healthy women with knee hyperextension

Patricia Teran-Yengle, H. John Yack. 2013. XXIV Congress of the International society of Biomechanics. XV Brazilian Congress of Biomechanics.
Biometrics Ltd goniometers were placed on the knees of study participants, this study aimed to collect knee extension data for a target population over a 6-10 hour period. The Biometrics Ltd DataLOG unit was used to allow for complete data acquisition (save to card mode) while the subjects carried out a typical “work” day. Data was analysed post collection to quantify knee range of motion and knee extension changes when participating in different activities.
keywords: DataLOG goniometers knee extension range of motion gait analysis 2013

Frequency specific activity in subthalamic nucleus correlates with hand bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease

Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Anam Anzak, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Keyoumars Ashkan, Marko Bogdanovic, Alexander L. Green , Tipu Aziz , Peter Brown. Experimental Neurology 240 (2013) 122-129
This grip analysis study documents a relationship between age and effects of medication within a group of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Each subject is instructed to grip (using the Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer) after an LED cue. Age matched healthy (non-Parkinson's disease) subjects are included as a control group. Multiple force parameters are documented including time delay (from cue to grip) and grip strength over the experimental period.
keywords: Dynamometer Grip Parkinson's disease 2013

On-Site Observations of Spine Angle Data During Prolonged Office Sitting While Performing Computer- Aided Drafting Work: A Case Study

Brian C. Nairn, Nadia R. Azar and Janessa D.M. Drake. (2013) IIE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, 1:1, 76-81
Two Biometrics Ltd goniometers are used per subject during this study; goniometers are connected to the Biometrics DataLOG. The posture of participants within this study is monitored; both the spinal joint angles (two spinal locations) and pain scores are used to determine the long term effects of sitting at a computer/desk within an office environment.
keywords: Goniometer DataLOG posture analysis office environment pain spinal damage 2013

Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males than in Elderly Males and Boys

Giedrius Gorianovas, Albertas Skurvydas, Vytautas Streckis, Marius Brazaitis, Sigitas Kamandulis, and Malachy P. McHugh. Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2013
A Biometrics Ltd goniometer was used on an array of subjects in order to document muscle damage. Subjects ranged in age to determine whether age is a factor in the magnitude of indirect symptoms of muscle damage. The Goniometer specifically was used to control the knee joint angle during an exercise session.
keywords: Goniometers age related muscle damage exercise evaluation 2013

Upper Body Muscular Activation during Variations of Push-Ups in Healthy Men

Caroline C. Allen, Katie A. Dean, Alan P. Jung, John K. Petrella. 2013 International Journal of Exercise Science 278-288
A multitude of Biometrics ltd sensors are used to conduct this muscle activity study. Subjects (all male) were instructed to perform two different types of push-up, each push-up was performed with the participants' hands on separate Biometrics Ltd ForcePlates. EMG sensors were attached to upper body muscles and both the ForcePlates and EMG sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit. Results are presented comparing the 'regular' push-up with the learned 'perfect' push-up.
keywords: DataLOG EMG resistance exercise perfect push-up ForcePlates DFP4 muscle study 2013

Use of Augmented Reality-Based Training with EMG-Triggered Functional Electric Stimulation in Stroke Rehabilitation

Go-Un Jung, Tae-Ho Moon, Gun-Woo Park, Jun-Young Lee, Byoung-Hee Lee. J.Phys.Ther.Sci. 25: 147-151, 2013
This study involved an analysis of stroke patients, the Biometrics Ltd goniometers and EMG sensors were used to document range of motion and other clinical measurements. The Biometrics Ltd DataLOG with analysis software was used. Study participants were split into two groups in order to discover the effects of EMG-Triggered electric stimulation.
keywords: DataLOG Goniometers stroke rehabilitation EMG range of motion Analysis software 2013

Ergonomic evaluation of effects of handle shape and task orientation on human performance in screw driving task

Asmar Husain, Abid Ali Kahn, Faisal Hasan. 2013. International Journal of Advancements in Technology Vol.4, No. 1
This study utilises Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit in order to document the effects of screwdriver handle ergonomics. Data is analysed using Biometrics Ltd DataLINK Analysis software and compared with comfort data along with productivity results. As the experimental variables change, data is collected and displayed with regards to each measured parameter.
keywords: EMG DataLINK Software comfort productivity 2013

Wrist electrogoniometry: are current mathematical correction procedures effective in reducing crosstalk in functional assessment?

Fabiana A. Foltran; Luciana C. C. B. Silva; Tatiana O. Sato; Helenice J. C. G. Coury. 2013. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy. Vol 17 No.1
Biometrics Ltd goniometers and torsiometers were used for this study, sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit and data was exported for analysis. Several mathematical correction protocols were applied to the data in order to reduce cross talk however findings suggest that no correction methods significantly altered results.
keywords: DataLOG Goniometers Torsiometers physical therapy health evaluation reproducibility of results 2013

Combined Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

H. Minoonejad, R. Rajabi, E. Ebrahimi-Takamjani, M. H. Alizadeh, A. A. Jamshidi, A. Azhari, E. Fatehi. 2012. World Journal of Sport Sciences 6 (3): 278-285
Biometrics Ltd goniometers are used to monitor knee flexion during this study to document the effects of exercise on patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) sufferers. Data was collected before and after a six week period so that a statistical analysis could be carried out comparing results from the control group with the exercise group. The goniometers were placed on the leg of participants from both subject groups; knee flexion was recorded for a stair climbing activity while pain scores were communicated.
keywords: Goniometer pain knee flexion exercise 2012

The Effect of Wet Ice Application on Muscular Reaction Time to a Simulated Ankle sprain Mechanism

Peter K. Thain, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S.Mitchell. 2012. BASES Biomechanics Interest Group 27th Easter Meeting
Muscle reaction time was monitored during this study using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit. Study participants were instructed to stand barefoot on two platforms, one of which moves to simulate ankle sprain, EMG sensors were attached to the lower limb to document the muscle reaction time. A wet ice treatment was applied midway through data acquisition to confirm if this 'ice application'” effects the time taken for each of the three muscles studied to react thus affecting the performance/risk of injury of the athlete/subject.
keywords: EMG DataLINK lower limb sport performance injury reduction 2012

Principal Component Analysis of Gait Kinematics in Acute and chronic Stroke Patients

Ivana Milovanovic, Dejan B. Popovic 2012. Computational Mathematical Methods in Medicine 2012. 649743
Participants of this study had all suffered neurological deficits caused by stroke; subgroups were determined by the time period elapsed since the stroke (less than and more than six months). A variety of Biometrics Ltd goniometers were used with the DataLOG unit in order to quantify joint movement during a walking exercise. Goniometers were placed on both hips and knees of subjects, the paretic and nonparetic leg was documented and used as the primary analysis, a secondary analysis is presented as a comparison between data collected from the sub-populations.
keywords: DataLOG goniometer ankle knee hip gait analysis 2012

Ergonomics of novices and experts during simulated endotracheal intubation

Adam de Laveaga, Michael C. Wadman, Laura Wirth and M. Susan Hallbeck. Work 41 (2012) 4692-4698
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers, Torsiometers and EMG sensors were simultaneously used during this study. All sensors were connected to the DataLINK unit and data was analysed using the DataLINK analysis software. Subjects were instructed to complete several tasks to do with endotracheal intubation; a simulator was used and adjusted to monitor the effects of changing intubation posture.
keywords: DataLINK Goniometer Torsiometer EMG digital event marker analysis Software 2012

Ergonomic evaluation of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery ports in a validated laparoscopic training model

Bernadette McCrorya, Bethany R. Lowndesa, Laura M. Wirtha, Adam E. de Laveagaa, Chad A. LaGrangeb and M. Susan Hallbeck. Work 41 (2012) 1884-1890
Biometrics Ltd goniometers (SG65 and SG110) were applied to each subject's dominant wrist and elbow. A surgical simulator set up was used in order to document wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation during LESS (Laproendoscopic Single-Site Surgery). The goniometers were connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit, all data was analysed using the DataLINK analysis software.
keywords: Goniometers DataLINK Analysis Software wrist angle elbow angle range of motion single-incision laproscopy human factors 2012

Effects of Backward Walking on Hamstring Flexibility and Low Back Range of Motion

Chet R. Whitley, Janet S. Dufek 2011. International Journal of Exercise Science 4(3) 2011 p192-198
Study participants were instructed to complete a backward walking programme in order to document the effects this would have. A Biometrics Ltd SG150/B goniometer was placed on each subject’s lower back to document their lower back-range of motion over the experimental period. After the experimental period, the range of motion data combined with the flexibility data of individual participants is presented and discussed.
keywords: Lower back goniometer range of motion spine rehabilitation 2011

Classification of rhythmic locomotor patterns in electromyographic signals using fuzzy sets

Timothy A Thrasher, John S Ward, Stanley Fisher 2011. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2011, 8:65
Eight Biometrics Ltd surface EMG sensors are positioned on the lower limbs of each study participant; all sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit including foot switches (inside the subjects’ shoes). An exercise protocol is followed including treadmill walking so that a complete gait analysis data set is acquired. This data is manipulated post data acquisition in order to identify rhythmic locomotor patterns.
keywords: DataLOG EMG gait analysis foot switches lower limb 2011

Development of an ergonomic syringe adapter

Development of an ergonomic syringe adapter
This study aims to quantify the forces that nurse uses when administering treatment, a comparison between traditional syringes and a prototype syringe is documented. A variety of Biometrics Ltd sensors are simultaneously connected to the DataLOG unit, F35 goniometers are placed on the fingers while the SG65 is attached to the wrist. Flexiforce sensors are also used with the DataLOG unit, all angle and force data is captured using the DataLOG software. Study participants were instructed to follow the test protocol using each syringe so that results could be compared and discussed.
keywords: Gonometers DataLOG pain wrist finger injury flexiforce sensors DataLOG software SG65 F35 2011

Effect of Orthoses on Changes in Neuromuscular Control and Aerobic Cost of a 1-h Run

Luke A. Kelly, Olivier Girard, Sebastien Racinais 2011. Official Journal of the American college of Medicine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol 43, No 12, pp 2335-2343
Biometrics Ltd equipment (EMG sensors connected to the DataLOG unit) was used to collect data for this comparison study. The study population consisted of male recreational athletes, each subject was instructed to complete an hours’ run while lower limb EMG data was measured, along with other parameters. The positioning of the EMG surface electrodes was marked so that the experiment could be repeated with all participants wearing foot orthoses in their running shoes. A comparative analysis is detailed.
keywords: DataLOG EMG foot orthoses treadmill running lower limb 2011

Effects of movement stability and congruency on the emergence of spontaneous interpersonal coordination

Charles Coey, Manuel Varlet, R.C. Schmidt, Michael J. Richardson. 2011. Experimental Brain Research (2011) 211:483-493
Biometrics Ltd goniometers are used in this study to document angular wrist changes of two coordination-based experiments. All participants were instructed to carry out 'pendulum swinging' experiments in order to monitor the effects of coordination while under two different test conditions. The goniometer data is used to present a statistical analysis of the two experiments so that a relationship between interpersonal coordination and intrapersonal coordination.
keywords: Goniometer coordination wrist 2011

The influence of Body Mass on Whole Body Vibration: A Quad Bike Field Study

Ramakrishnan Mani, Stephan Milosavljevic, S. John Sullivan (2011). The Ergonomics Open Journal, 4, 1-9
A Biometrics DataLOG unit is mounted onto the back of a quad bike used in this vibrational analysis study. Subjects travelled on the quad bike over a variety of terrains in order to analyse the level of whole body vibration that they were exposed to. Subject Body Mass Index (BMI) is fundamental to this experiment in order to document the relationship between BMI and whole body vibration.
keywords: DataLOG vibrational analysis BMI whole body vibration 2011

The effects of the Bowen technique on hamstring flexibility over time: A randomised controlled trial

Michelle Marr, Julian Baker, Nicky Lambon, Jo Perry. 2011, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 15, 281-290
Biometrics Ltd goniometers were used to document flexibility for this study examining the effects of using the Bowen technique. Each subject was instructed to raise their dominant leg into the air to the point of mild tension in the thigh; this end-point measurement was used in the final comparisons. Participants reached this point before and after therapy to record not only the effect of the treatment but also the long term effects over a period of time.
keywords: Goniometer Hamstring Flexibility Bowen technique Randomised control trial 2011

Effect Of Muscle Action, Load and Velocity Variation on the Bilateral Neuromuscular Response

N Ball, J Scurr; Journal Of Exercise Physiology, Vol 14 Number 4 August 2011
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG with analysis software and SX230 EMG used to measure EMG activity to assess the effect of different muscle actions, velocity, and load on the bilateral EMG response of the triceps surae.
keywords: DataLOG SX230 EMG Analysis Software Exercise Physiology LE 2011

Reliability and Validity of an Electronic Dynamometer for Measuring Grip Strength

D Allen, F Barnett; International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 18(5)258-265 (May 2011)
The purpose of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the Biometrics electronic dynamometer, and compare it with the criterion standard hydraulic Jamar dynamometer for measurement of grip strength among healthy participants. Conclusions in the results discussion include: "The concurrent validity between the Biometrics and Jamar dynamometers was found to be excellent for both the right (0.986) and left hands (0.983),and indicates that both the Jamar and Biometrics dynamometers measure the same construct of grip strength. Results also indicate that the Biometrics dynamometer is a valid tool for measuring grip strength." and "Electronic dynamometers also have increased sensitivity to applied force, which therefore enables electronic dynamometers, such as the Biometrics to record low grip strength that may not have registered on the Jamar." The Practical implications state: "This study has established that the Biometrics E-LINK evaluation system is a valid and reliable measurement tool to use by rehabilitation professionals."
keywords:grip dynamometer reliability validity test-retest UE Australia 2011

Does prolonged chewing reduce food intake? Fletcherism revisited

H Jan Smit, E K Kemsley, H S Tapp, C Jeya, K Henry; Appetite - 1168 Feb 2011
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG used to measure bilateral EMG activity of masseter muscle and anterior portion temporalis muscles during chewing of food.
keywords: DataLOG P3X8 SX230 EMG mastication 2011

Spasticity and contractures at the wrist after stroke: time course of development and their association with functional recovery of the upper limb

S Malhotra, AD Pandyan, S Rosewilliam, C Roffe, H Hermens; Clinical Rehabilitation 2011; 25: 184-191
Biometrics Ltd equipment is used to identify a relationship between upper limb functional recovery and the development of spasticity in stroke patients over a quantified time. A combination of Biometrics sensors including Goniometers and EMG probes were used along with a force transducer to evaluate range of motion muscle activity and force simultaneously during exercise. With this data, clinicians are capable of studying the development of spasticity and wrist contractures over time in addition to confirming the relationship between spasticity, function and contracture development.
keywords: Spasticity ARAT EMG goniometers Stroke muscle activity force range of motion stiffness pain wrist contracture

Comparison of some electromyography parameters during treadmill running in athletes and non-athletes

SS Bonab, B Tarverdizadeh, MA Azarbayjani, YS Zamani; World Applied Sciences Journal, 13 (3) 2011 pages 552 – 557
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG used to measure EMG activity in Gastrocnemius muscle whilst running on a treadmill, comparing athletes with non-athletes.
keywords: DataLOG EMG running sports LE 2011

Clinical efficacy and prognostic indicators for lower limb pedalling exercise early after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

N Hancock, L Shepstone, P Rowe, PK Myint, V Pomeroy; Trials 2011 12:68
Biometrics Ltd DataLink and EMG sensors (SX230) used to measure muscle activity in early stroke patients during stationary bike pedalling exercise.
keywords: DataLINK EMG SX230 stroke LE cycling exercise 2011

Multiple vibration displacements at multiple vibration frequencies stress impact on human femur computational analysis

B Ezenwa, HT Yeoh; Journal Of Rehabilitation Research & Development Volume 48, Number 2, 2011 pages 179 – 190
Biometrics Ltd Accelerometer ACL300 and DataLog with analysis software were used in this study of use of vibration to improve bone density.
keywords: DataLOG Analysis sw ACL300 accelerometers vibration bone density LE 2011

Influence of footwear typically worn during field hockey participation, velocity and surfaces on tibial accelerations during locomotion

A Greenhalgh, J Sinclair, A Leat, N Chockaligam; Footwear Science Volume 3 Supplement 1 September 2011
Biometrics DataLOG and ACL300 accelerometer used to measure impact shocks runners experienced in varying conditions.
keywords: DataLOG ACL300 accelerometers sports science LE 2011

Lip Pressure at Rest and During Function in 2 Groups of Patients with Different Occlusions

D Di Fazio, L Lombardo, A Gracco, P D'Amico, G Siciliani; American Journal Of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics January 2011 Pages e1 – e6
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG with analysis software and flexible force sensors were used to measure lip pressure at rest and whilst swallowing.
keywords: DataLOG force sensors orthodonics 2011

Daily muscle activity and quiescence in non-frail, pre-frail, and frail older women

Olga Theou, Gareth R. Jones, Anthony A. Vandervoort, Jennifer M. Jakobi 2010. Experimental Gerontology 25 (2010) 909-917
This frailty study relied on acquisition of quantified EMG measurements recorded over a significant time period (9/10 hour). Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLOG unit allowed each study participant to freely go about their regular day while EMG data from their upper and lower limbs was collected and stored within the DataLOG unit (save to card mode). Data was analysed post data acquisition and combined with other quantified parameters to discuss the relationship between muscle activity and frailty category.
DataLOG EMG aging older adults long-term EMG muscle activity muscle quiescence lower limb upper limb 2010

Crosstalk effect on surface electromyogram of the forearm flexors during a static grip task

Yong-Ku Kong, M. Susan Hallbeck, Myung-Chul Jung (2010). Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 20, 1223-1229
This crosstalk analysis utilises the Biometrics Ltd surface EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit. Subjects were measured and EMG sensors were applied to specific points of their forearms, EMG data was then recorded during static grip exercises. Post data acquisition filtering is applied to the EMG data to present the effects of crosstalk.
keywords: EMG DataLINK crosstalk forearm flexors grip 2010

An assessment of the usefulness of patient evaluation measure questionnaire as an outcome measure after carpal tunnel surgery

Bernard Piotuch, Andrzej zyluk. 2010 Polski Prezeglad chirurgiczny, 82, 6, 347-353
Participants of this study had recently undergone carpal tunnel surgery. The analysis aims to investigate the results from a patient questionnaire with quantitative data recorded. The Biometrics Ltd dynamometer connected to the DataLINK unit was used to record grip strength for the subject population pre and post-surgery.
keywords: Dynamometer DataLINK key-pinch strength grip carpal tunnel syndrome 2010

MRI-identified abnormalities and wrist range of motion in asymptomatic versus symptomatic computer users

Ronald A Burgess, William F Pavlosky, R Terry Thompson. 2010. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 11:273
Biometrics Ltd goniometers are applied to the wrists of study participants, all subjects are regular computer users. Goniometer data collected is used in combination with MRI data in order to document the effects of long term computer use on the wrist. A sub analysis included splitting subjects into either an asymptomatic or symptomatic group.
keywords: goniometers wrist range of motion computer users wrist flexion 2010

Muscle twitch responses for shaping the multi-pad electrode for functional electrical stimulation

Nebojsa Malesevic, Lana Popovic, Goran Bijelic, Goran Kvascev. 2010. Journal of Automatic Control, University of Belgrade, Vol. 20:53-58
Biometrics Ltd goniometers are applied to the finger and wrist of participants in this study. The objective of this analysis is to test muscle twitch responses of subjects when exposed to two different types of electrical stimulation. The Biometrics Ltd goniometers were fundamental in assessing the continuous pulse stimulation response; this data was them compared with that from the single current pulse stimulation.
keywords: Goniometers wrist flexion finger flexion functional electrical stimulation 2010

The Reliability of One vs. Three Trials of Pain-free Grip Strength in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis

D Kennedy, C Jerosch-Herold, M Hickson; Journal of Hand Therapy Oct-Dec 2010; 23:384-391
A Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer was used to measure the test-retest reliability of one vs. three trials. The Implications for Practice included: "The results of this study demonstrate levels of test-retest reliability (ICC ≥0.91) for the evaluation of one and the mean of three trials of pain-free grip strength tested using the Biometrics E-LINK evaluation system in participants with RA....A change in grip strength as small as 1.6 kg may be indicative of meaningful clinical change in RA patients; therefore, grip should be evaluated with an instrument with adequate sensitivity to detect this magnitude of change."
keywords: grip dynamometer reliability strength arthritis UE UK 2010

Does low-dose botulinum toxin help the recovery of arm function when given early after stroke? A phase II randomized controlled pilot study to estimate effect size

Elizabeth Cousins, Anthony Ward, Christine Roffe, Lesley Rimington, Anand Pandyan; clinical Rehabilitation 2010; 24: 501-513
A variety of Biometrics Ltd sensors are used to measure arm function and spasticity in stroke patients. Sensors used include the Dynamometer, EMG probes, Goniometers and a custom built, hand held force transducer all connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit. Data was recorded at distinct time intervals post stroke in order to document arm function recovery of two control groups, one group were administered a low dose of botulinum toxin early on after stroke while the other was administered a placebo.
keywords: Spasticity Botulinum Toxin stroke elbow wrist arm function grip strength range of motion EMG goniometer dynamometer DataLINK ARAT

Comparative outcome of dista radial fractures treated by percutaneous k-wire fixation and internal fixation

O Flannery, M Naughton, A Walsh; European Journal of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology 2010, vol 20, pp 131-135
Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer and Pinchmeter were used in this study to compare the outcome of two different treatments for dorsally displaced distal radial fractures.
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength orthopedic UE Ireland 2010

Palmer multidirectional fixed-angle plate fixation in distal radius fractures: do intraarticular fractures have a worse outcome than extraarticular fractures?

J Sonderegger, S Schindele, M Rau, J G Gruenert; Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 2010, 130:1263-1268
This study examined the results and complications of using a palmer plate system for treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. The range of motion of both the injured and contralateral wrist was measured using an Biometrics Ltd E-LINK goniometer.
keywords: E-LINK goniometer range of motion orthopedic UE Switzerland 2010

Rehabilitation Program in Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

E Martinez-Quintana, G Miranda-Calderin, A Ugarte-Lopetegui, F Rodreguez-Gonzalez; Congenital Heart Disease 2010,5:44-50
A Biometrics Ltd grip dynamometer was used to measure grip strength in this study of the effects of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension.
keywords: grip dynamometer strength cardiology rehabilitation Spain 2010

Comparison between Direct Measurement and Observation Methods for Upper Extremity Activity Assessment at Workplace

YT Chen, CY Chen, HW Liang, TR Chang, YH Hwang; Journal Of Occupational Safety and Health 18:p1-14 2010
Biometrics Ltd EMG used to monitor activities of extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and flexor digitorium superficialis (FDS) during various hand activities while the Biometrics Ltd goniometer simultaneously measured the wrist movement and number of repetitions.
keywords: EMG SX230 Goniometers SG65 workplace analysis UE 2010

Wavelet-Based Entropy Analysis Of Electromyography During 100 Jumps

L Daniuseviciute, K Pukenas, M Brazaitis, A Skurvydas, S Sipaviciene, I Ramanauskiene, V Linonis; Electronics And Electrical Engineering 2010 No8(104), Medicine Technology T115
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG sensors used to recorded muscle activity of Vastus lateralis and biceps femoris during jumping activity for fatigue analysis.
keywords: DataLOG P3X8 EMG SX230 muscle fatigue LE 2010

Rigid Cervical Collar HeightThe Effect of Rigid Cervical Collar Height on ROM During 15 Activities of Daily Living

C P Miller, J E Bible, K A Jegede, P G Whang, J N Grauer; Spine 2010,35(26) E1546-E1552
"This study used a dynamic motion analysis system comprised of" Biometrics Ltd DataLOG, goniometer, torsiometer, and Analysis Software. "This system allows for the accurate calculation of the flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation of the cervical spine."
keywords: DataLOG SG150 Goniometer Q150 Torsiometer Analysis Software Cervical Spine Biomechanics 2010

The Effectiveness of Walking Stick Use for Neurogenic Claudication: Results From a Randomised Trial and the Effects on Walking Tolerance and Posture

C M Comer, M I Johnson, P R Marchant, A C Redmond, H A Bird, P G Conaghan; Archives Of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Volume 91 Issue 1 p15-19 January 2010
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG, goniometer, and Analysis Software used to measure spinal angle during testing of walking tolerance.
keywords: DataLOG Goniometer Analysis Software Neurogenic claudication Lumbar Spine 2010

Multimodal Human-Machine Interaction for Human Adaptive Manipulation

H Farid, G Nia, J A R Cannan, M A Oskoei, H Hu, University OF Essex Publication CES-507
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and EMG sensors used to record human EMG signals which in turn are used to control a robotic arm.
keywords: DataLOG W4X8 SX230 EMG Robot Teleoperation 2010

Validation of the Flexible Electrogoniometer for Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis

D Perriman J Scarvell, A Hughes, B Ashman, C Lueck, P Smith; SPINE, Volume 35, Number 14, pages E633 – E640
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer used with the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK was compared against the "gold standard" Cobb angle method in measurements of the thoracic spine. The results state that the Biometrics Ltd goniometer "is accurate, has excellent test-retest reliability, and has concurrent validity compared with the Cobb angle. The goniometer is therefore proposed as an ideal tool for the evaluation of interventions aimed at improving sagittal thoracic spine posture."
keywords: DataLINK Electgoniometers reliability validity spine 2010

Effects of ladder types on energy expenditure and forearm force exertion during ladder climbing

Vi, Peter 2009 Infrastructure Health and Safety Association
This comparative study utilises Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors connected to the DataLOG unit, EMG sensors are placed on the forearms of participants during the activity/data acquisition stage. All EMG data collected is presented in order to discuss the comparisons between two safety techniques used in the building and construction industry for ladder climbing. Participants wore the DataLOG unit on a belt around their waist as they climbed ladders using each safety device.
keywords: EMG DataLOG forearms muscle activity health and safety 2009

Physical workload in various types of work: Part 1. Wrist and Forearm

Gert-Ake Hansson, Istvan Balogh, Kerstina Ohlsson, Lothy Granqvist, Catarina Nordander, Inger Arvidsson, Ingrid Akesson, Jeanette Unge, Ralf Rittner, Ulf Stromberg, Staffan Skerfving. International Journal of Inductrial Ergonomics 39 (2009) 221-233
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors and Goniometers were used for this extensive ergonomic study. EMG data from the forearm extensors and goniometry data from the wrist were collected simultaneously using the DataLOG unit. A large subject population was used involving workers from a wide range of industries in order to determine the effects on the wrist and forearm in different job roles.
keywords: EMG DataLOG Goniometer work-related musculoskeletal disorders wrist goniometry forearm extensor 2009

Comparison of surface electromyographic activity of erector spinae before and after the application of central posteroanterior mobilisation on the lumbar spine

Gregorios Krekoukias, Nicola J. Petty, Liz Cheek. 2009. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 19 39-45
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are used to document muscle activity in this study analysing the effects of lumbar spine mobilisation. All EMG sensors were connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit and data collected was filtered using the DataLINK software. All subjects within this study were instructed to follow the specified protocol; their EMG data was recorded before and after posteroanterior mobilisation. The subject population was divided into three groups (placebo, mobilisation and control) in order to allow for a comparison analysis.
keywords: DataLINK EMG Analysis software 2009

The Effects of Load and Technique on Biomechanical and Psychophysical Responses to Lead Dynamic Pushing and Pulling

Bennett, A. I. (2009) Rhodes University
Flexible TF sensors are inserted into industrial work boots and connected to the DataLOG unit. Subjects wearing these boots were instructed to carry out the specified push/pull exercises. Data collected, including body discomfort data communicated by the individual post exercise, is used to identify the relationship between response to push/pull exercise and the load and technique used.
keywords: DataLOG Analysis Software TF sensors Gait analysis Body discomfort push/pull 2009

The effects of impaired joint position sense on the development and progression of pain and structural damage in knee osteoarthritis

David T Felson, K Douglas Gross, Michael C Nevitt, Mei Yang, Nancy E Lane, James C Torner, Cora E Lewis, Michael V Hurley. 2009. Arthritis Care and Research Volume 61, Issue 8, pages 1070-1076
All participants of this study either suffered with osteoarthritis in the knee joint or were at high risk of it. Biometrics Ltd goniometers were attached to the right knee of the subject population in order to document results from the analysis. A guided knee joint angle was held for a predetermined time and recorded, the participants were instructed to recreate this angle from memory and communicate pain ratings. Goniometer data was then combined with radiographic grades.
keywords: Goniometer pain joint damage knee function 2009

Long-term results of major upper extremity replantations

T Sugun, K Ozaksar, S Ada, F Kui, F Ozerkan, I Kaplan, Y Ademoglu, M Kayalar, E Bal, T Toros, A Bora; ACTA Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica 2009,43(3):206-213
The mean grip and pinch strengths on the affected side were compared to the normal side using a computerized Biometrics Ltd E-LINK Evaluation and Exercise System dynamometer and pinchmeter.
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength orthopedic UE Turkey 2009

Study of Pulsed Magnetic Field Action in Posttraumatic Peripheral Nerve Lesions of the Upper Extremity

S Butariu, L Galosi, E Butariu, G Mihalas, R Costan; Timisoara Medical Journal 2009,Vol 59, No 3
Pre and post treatment functional evaluation was conducted using Biometrics E-LINK computerized Evaluation System. Tests performed included: range of motion measured using E-LINK electrogoniometers, pinch & grip strength measured using E-LINK electronic dynamometer & pinchmeter, documentation of manually collected data in E-LINK Evaluation software. The results of this study to evaluate the application effects of pulsed magnetic fields in rehabilitation were assessed by calculating the difference of the global impairment score, expressed in percentages, as calculated by the E-LINK software.
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength goniometer range of motion evaluation & impairment software physiotherapy hand rehabilitation UE Romania 2009

Musculoskeletal Reconstruction in Bilateral Forearm Transplantation

M Gabl, M Blauth, M Lutz, R Zimmermann, P Angermann, R Arora, H Piza-Katzer, H Hussl, M Ninkovic, S Schneeberger, R Margreiter; Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2009, 41:224-229; article in German
Improvement in motor function of the upper extremity was investigated in a patient following bilateral forearm transplantation. Grip and pinch strength were measured using Biometrics Ltd grip dynamometer and pinchmeter.
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength orthopedic surgery UE Austria 2009

Quantitative Measurement of Poststroke Spasticity and Response to Treatment with Botulinum Toxin a 2 Patient Case Report

E Cousins, A B Ward, C Roffe, L D Rimington, A D Pandyan; Physical Therapy Volume 89 Number 7 p688-697
Biometrics Ltd DataLINK, Goniometers and EMG sensors used as a neurophysiological measure of joint angle and EMG activity in post stroke patients treated for spasticity with Botulinum toxin.
keywords: DataLINK Goniometers EMG Stroke Spasticity Botulinum Toxin elbow wrist UE 2009

Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation: A Novel Robot for Ankle Rehabilitation

A Roy, HI Krebs, DJ Williams, CT Bever, LW Forrester, RM Macko, N Hogan; IEEE Transactions On Robotics Vol 25 No 3 June 2009
Biometrics Ltd SG110 goniometer used to validate accuracy of ankle angle on a robotic ankle rehabilitation system.
keywords: Goniometer Ankle robot Neurorehabilitation Biomechanics LE 2009

Low-Intensity Cycling Affects The Muscle Activation Pattern Of Consequent Countermovement Jumps

G J Marquez, J Mon, R M Acero, Jose A Sanchez and M Fernandez-Del-Olmo; The Journal Of Strength And Conditioning Research 23(5)/1470-1476 2009
This study was designed to determine the effect of different cycling cadences at low intensity and short duration on explosive muscle movements. Data acquisition using Biometrics DataLOG with analysis software, goniometers and SX230 EMG to measure the joint movements and muscle activity of the leg.
keywords: DataLOG P3X8 SX230 EMG Goniometer Analysis Software Exercise Cycling LE 2009

Conservative vs Operative (Fixation with K-wires) Treatment of Isolated Fractures of Metacarpal bones - Results of the Prospective, Randomized Study

A Zyluk, T Budzynski; Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny, 2009, 81, 5, 217-224
Biometrics Ltd Dynamometer and Pinchmeter used with a Biometrics Ltd DataLINK to measure grip and pinch strength in metacarpal fracture patients, comparing those who had surgery (K-wire fixaton) with those patients who were treated more conservatively by reduction and immobilization.
keywords: Dynamometer Pinchmeter DataLINK grip strength UE 2009

EMG Signal Analysis for Identifying Walking Patterns of Normal Healthy Individuals

N Kunju, N Kumar, D Pankaj, A Dhawan, DR Amod Kumar; Indian Journal of Biomechanics, Special Issue (NCBM 7-8 March 2009)
Biometrics Ltd DataLink and SX230 EMG used to measure EMG activity of Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles whilst subject was walking. Data was analyised using the RMS and Median Frequency filters in the Biometrics Ltd Analysis Software.
keywords: DataLINK EMG SX230 Analysis sw Gait Analysis LE 2009

Effects of treadmill inclination on electromyographic activity and hind limb kinematics in healthy hounds at a walk

S Lauer, R Hillman, L Li, G Hosgood; American Journal of Veterinary Research 2009, vol 70, no 5, pp 658-664
Biometrics Ltd surface EMG sensors, electrogoniometers, contact switches and data acquisition instrumentation were used in this study to determine the effect of various levels of treadmill incline on the muscle activity and joint position/movement in healthy dogs.
keywords: EMG SX230 Gonio sg110W Contact Switches DataLINK veterinary dogs gait analysis 2009

Hyperthermia impairs short-term memory and peripheral motor drive transmission

Hyperthermia impairs short-term memory and peripheral motor drive transmission
This study aims to document the relationship between ambient temperature and muscle activity. The Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors (connected to the DataLOG unit) were applied to subjects and worn throughout the duration of the study (over each of the three temperature environments). EMG signals were collected and analysed post data acquisition to quantify muscle activity.
keywords: EMG DataLOG software muscle activity temperature effects

Tai Chi for Treating Knee Osteoarthritis: Designing a long-term follow up randomized control trial

Chenchen Wang, Christopher H Schmid, Patricia L Hibberd, Robert Kalih, Ronenn Roubenoff, Ramel Rones, Aghogho Okparavero, Timothy McAlindon. 2008 BNC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9:108
This paper details a design protocol for testing treatment of knee osteoarthritis amongst patients. One of the analyses conducted includes applying a Biometrics Ltd goniometer to the knee joint, patients are guided to a specific angle and then asked to recreate it from memory. The main objective here is to conclude that patients whom regularly practice Tai Chi will have reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis which will have subsequent benefits such as an enhanced quality of life.
keywords: Goniometer knee proprioception angle reproducibility knee osteoarthritis quality of life 2008

Effectiveness of a drywall sanding machine (DSM) in reducing forceful exertions and repetitive motion

Vi, Peter 2008 AHFE International Conference
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors were used in this study in order to compare muscle activity between two sanding techniques. The EMG sensors were connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLOG unit and data was analysed post acquisition. Findings from this study are useful to the building and construction industry as they highlight some egronomical limitations of new techniques/equipment.
keywords: DataLOG EMG construction force repetition intervention 2008

Changing strategies results in Better Learning of New Motor Tasks

Aimee L. Betker, toy szturm, Zahra m. K. Moussavi. (2008). IEE engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine.
This visual-spatial experiment includes the use of Biometrics EMG sensors connected to the DataLINK unit. Subjects are monitored as they undertake a biofeedback 'game' in which their ability to maintain balance is analysed. EMG data collected is filtered and displayed alongside the centre of foot pressure (COP) results to determine an individuals' response to different Motor tasks.
keywords: EMG DataLINK visual-spatial analysis centre of foot pressure (COP) biofeedback sensory-motor system balance 2008

Comparison between two mini incision techniques utilized in carpal tunnel release

E Bal, A Piskin, S ada, Y Ademoglu, T Toros, M Kayalar; ACTA Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica 2008,42(4):234-237
The difference of power between the operated hand in both groups were compared by palmer pinch and grip power values measured by Biometrics Ltd E-LINK.
keywords :grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength orthopedic surgery UE Turkey 2008

Component Separation of the Index Finger to Reconstruct the Thumb

A Mishra, I Whitaker, I Josty; Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol 61, No 6, December 2008
The assessment of the functional results at 18 months post surgery included grip strength measurements using a Biometrics Ltd E-LINK dynamometer.
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength plastic surgery UE UK 2008

Evaluation of the grip force, lower body strength and functional capacity in active and sedentary elders

A Filipa Pires, A Paula Castro, C Seixas, T Tomas, I Coutinho, E Carolino; Saude & Tecnologia, May 2008, #1: 36-41; article in Portuguese
The practice of regular physical acctivity has a better impact on the global condition of the elderly people. The authors evaluated the grip force using a portable dynamometer (Biometrics E-LINK).
keywords: grip dynamometer strength functional capacity elderly Portugal 2008

Effects of Low Frequency Whole Body Vibration on Motor-evoked Potentials in Healthy Men

K N Mileva, J L Bowtell, A R Kossev; Experimental Physiology 2008 94.1 p103-116
Biometrics Ltd goniometer used to measure knee flexion angles whilst subjects performed squat exercise during and after whole body vibration with motor-evoked potentials elicited in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.
keywords: Goniometer Knee Whole body vibration Transcranial magnetic stimulation LE 2008

The application of inertial and magnetic sensors to the monitoring of calf muscle pump activity

KJ O'Donovan, AK Bourke, DT O'Keeffe, G OLaighin; Medical Engineering & Physics 31 2009 p55-60
Biometrics DataLOG and SX230 EMG sensors used to measure EMG activity of calf muscle for comparison against an inertial sensor system whilst performing exercises to reduce the risk of DVT.
keywords: DataLOG SX230 EMG Deep Vein Thrombosis LE 2008

A technique to determine friction at the fingertips

A Browne, J Healy, L O'Sullivan; J Appl Biomech 2008 Feb 24(1) 43-50
Biometrics ACL300 used to measure slip force of an object as it was dropped.
keywords: ACL 300 accelerometers finger kinesiology UE 2008

Endoscopic Ultrasound Device Assessment Using an Integrated Ergonomics Analysis System for Wrist Posture and Force

A V Savescu, M L Latash and V M Zatsiorsky; University Of Limerick Ireland; Healthcare Systems Ergonomics and Patient Safety (HEPS) Conference, Strasbourg, June 25-27, 2008
Biometrics Ltd DataLINK, goniometers, and EMG were used to record wrist posture and forearm muscle activity in simulated endoscopy procedure.
keywords: DataLink EMG Goniometers wrist ergonomics UE 2008

Manifestation of Fatigue in Myoelctric Signals of Dynamic Contractions Produced During PC Games

MA Oekoei, H Hu and JQ Gan; University Of Essex, UK; 30th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference Vancouver, Canada, August 20 -24 2008
Biometrics Ltd SX230 electrodes used to measure muscle activity in four locations on forearm to measure whilst playing computer games.
keywords: DataLINK EMG SX230 UE 2008

The reliability of knee joint position testing using electrogoniometry

P Piriyaprasarth, M Morris, A Winter, A Bialocerkowski; Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:6
This study examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer. The clinical utility of electrogoniometry was also addressed. Data was collected using the Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and analyzed using Biometrics Ltd Analysis Software.
keywords: Gonio sg150 DataLOG Analysis sw knee LE reliability 2008

Psychophysiological Effects of Massage-Myofascial Release After Exercise: A Randomized Sham-Control Study

M Arroyo-Morales, N Olea, MM Martinez, A Hidalgo-Lozano, C Ruiz-Rodriguez, L Diaz-Rodriguez; The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2008, vol 14, no 10, pp 1223-1229
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors and DataLINK data acquisition system with analysis software was used to quantify muscle activity in the quadriceps in this study to evaluate the effect of massage on neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold after high-intensity exercise.
keywords: EMG SX230 DataLINK Analysis software LE sports PT 2008

Artificially Controlling the Limb Movement of Robotic Arm Using Machine Interface with EMG Sensor

GS Patel, A Rai, S Prasad; Sensors and Transducers Journal March 2008, vol 89, issue 3, pg 39-51
The aim of this paper is to describe a human machine interface using Electromyogram (Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors) signal to artificially control the limb movement.
keywords: EMG SX230 UE robotic arm control 2008

Tai Chi for treating knee osteoarthritis: designing a long-term follow up randomized controlled trial

C Wang, C Schmid, P Hibberd, R Kalish, R Roubenoff, R Rones, A Okparavero, T McAlindon; Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:108
This study examines the effects of a 12 week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching) on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Knee proprioception, which is reduced in KOA was measured using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer with a Biometrics Ltd ADU301 angle display unit during each assessment visit.
keywords: Gonio ADU knee LE proprioception arthritis 2008

An investigation into the agreement between clinical, biomechanical and neurophysiological measures of spasticity

Sweta Malhotra, Elizabeth Cousins, Anthony Ward, Charles Day, Peter Jones, Christine Roffe, Anand Pandyan; Clinical Rehabilitation 2008; 22: 1105-1115
Spasticity is measured at the wrist flexors of stroke patients using a combination of Biometrics Ltd EMG probes and goniometers along with a force transducer connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit. Force, range of motion and muscle activity were measured simultaneously during patient exercise in order to confirm the relationship between biomechanical, clinical and neurophysiological measurements necessary to best manage and assess spasticity.
keywords: Spasticity goniometers EMG DataLINK stroke range of motion muscle activity force ARAT

Flexor carpi radialis rupture reined in!

AJ Crowey, M R Carmont, B Tins, D J Ford; Injury Extra 2007, 38, 90-93
Case presentation of a rare FCR rupture. Grip strength on the right compared to the non-affected side was measured using an E-LINK dynamometer.
keywords: grip dynamometer strength orthopedic surgery UE UK 2007

Direct, quantitative clinical assessment of hand function: Usefulness and reproducibility

A Goodson, A McGregor, J Douglas, P Taylor; Manual Therapy 12 (2007) 144-152
This study explored the use of a commercially available system, the Biometrics E-LINK Evaluation System, for determining hand function in RA and OA patients, in terms of its reproducibility and practicability. Impairment of physiological hand function was assessed using the Biometrics E-Link instruments - dynamometer and pinchmeter for strength measurements, small and large electrogoniometers for finger and wrist ROM measurements. "To summarize, pinch, grip and ROM measurements are simple and quick to perform and the findings of this study support the routine clinical use of these measures ..."
keywords: grip dynamometer pinchmeter strength goniometer range of motion arthritis UE UK 2007:

Upper Limb Muscle Imbalance in Tennis Elbow: A Functional and Electromyographic Assessment

O Alizadehkhaiyat, A Fisher, G Kemp, K Vishwanathan, S Fostick; Journal of Orthoaedic Research December 2007
This study investigated strength, fatigability, and activity of upper limb musculature to elucidate the role of muscular imbalance in the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Grip strength was measured using a Biometrics Ltd dynamometer.
keywords: grip dynamometer strength orthopedic UE UK 2007

Comparison of Ergonomic Risk Assessment Output in a High Risk Sawmill Occupation: Saw Filer

T Jones, S Kumar; NORA Proceedings 2007 p103 -110
Biometrics Ltd Goniometer and Torsiometer used to measure motion of the wrist and forearm whilst subjects hammered saws.
keywords: Goniometer SG65 Torsiometer Q150 Ergonomic risk Saw mill workers UE 2007

Exaggerated interlimb neural coupling following stroke

T Kline, B Schmidt, D Kamper; Brain 2007, 130(1):159-169
Joint angles of the digits of the impaired hand and angle measurements of the elbow joint on the impaired side were measured with Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers in this study of patterns of interlimb coupling in ten stroke survivors with chronic hand impairment.
keywords: Gonio finger F35 elbow UE stroke research 2007

Ankle movements during normal gait evaluated by flexible electrogoniometer

CS Moriguchi, TO Sato, HJC Coury; Revista Brasileria de Fisioterapia 2007, vol 11, no 3
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer connected to a Biometrics Ltd datalogger was used to evaluate ankle movements of healthy individuals walking on a treadmill.
keywords: Gonio SG110A DL1001 ankle LE gait 2007

Analysis of the Repeated One-Leg Heel-Rise Test of Ankle Plantar Flexors in Manual Muscle Testing

S Kasahara, J Ebata, M Takahashi; Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2007; 19:251-256
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeated one-leg heel-rise test method of ankle plantar flexion in MMT with kinematic measuring devices and EMG. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to monitor ankle and knee movements during the test.
keywords: Gonio knee ankle LE physiotherapy 2007

Effect of handle design and target location on insertion and aim with a laparoscopic tool

A Trejo, MC Jung, D Oleynikov, MS Hallbeck; Applied Ergonomics 2007, 38: 745-753
One of the main ergonomic problems associated with laparoscopy is the surgeon's non-neutral position during surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate a laparoscopic tool design by examining the effects of hand posture, target position and monitor angle on physical workload and operation efficiency during both insertion and aim tasks. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure wrist and elbow position. Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors were used to measure muscle activity in forearm and upper arm muscles.
keywords: Gonio SG65 EMG SX230 wrist elbow UE ergonomics in surgery 2007

Accuracy and feasibility of using an electrogoniometer for measuring simple thumb movements

P Jonsson, P Johnson, M Hagberg; Ergonomics 2007, vol 50, issue 5, pg 647-659
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and feasibility of using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer for measuring simple thumb movements and concluded that electrogoniometers have utility for studying thumb movements during mobile phone use and may be used to evaluate other thumb-based input devices.
keywords: Gonio SG110 thumb UE ergonomics 2007

A 350-S Recovery Period Does Not Necessarily Allow Complete Recovery of Peak Power Output during Repeated Cycling Sprints

R Matsuura, H Ogata, T Yunoki, T Arimitsu, T Kimura, T Yano; Journal of Physiological Anthropology 2007, 26:51-57
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to collect lower extremity muscle activity during each of ten cycling sprints.
keywords: EMG SX230 LE sports 2007

Longitudinal Excursion and Strain in the Median Nerve During Novel Nerve Gliding Exercises for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

M W Coppieters, A M Alshami; Journal Of Orthopaedic Research 2006 24 p1-9
Biometrics Ltd goniometers used to measure wrist and elbow joint position and movement in cadavers during testing of novel nerve gliding techniques.
keywords: Goniometer Carpal Tunnel Syndrome wrist elbow UE 2006

An Experimental Pain Model to Investigate the Specificity of the Neurodynamic Test for the Median Nerve in the Differential Diagnosis of Hand Symptoms

M W Coppieters, A M Alshami, P W Hodges; Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 87 October 2006
Biometrics Ltd goniometer used to accurately document elbow positions during neurodynamic testing in subjects with induced hand pain.
keywords: Goniometer pain hand UE 2006

Knee Motion in SpaceComparison of Knee Motion on Earth and in Space: an Observational study

M Pierre, K Genc, M Litow, B Humphreys, A Rice, C Maender, P Cavanaugh; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:8
Custom made Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were incorporated into a custom built Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit to monitor knee movement in the same subjects on earth and then in space aboard the International Space Station.
keywords: Gonio knee LE biomechanics aerospace 2006

The effects of contextual relevance and ownership on a reaching and placing task

M Holubar, M Rice; Australian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2006, 53:35-42
This study aimed to maintain the purposefulness of the occupation – the entire movement of placing the coffee mug on the shelf. The data was collected by using a Biometrics Ltd electronic goniometer attached across the elbow of the dominant limb.
keywords: Gonio elbow XM110 UE motor control OT perception 2006

Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

J Huddleston, A Alaiti, D Goldvasser, D Scarborough, a Freiberg, H Rubash, H Malchau, W Harris, D Krebs
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation; Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral knee flexion angles for periods of 7-24 hours.
keywords: Gonio SG150 knee LE movement analysis 2006

Reliability and Validity of Bilateral Thigh and Foot Accelerometry Measures of Walking in Healthy and Hemiparetic Subjects

K Saremi, J Marehbian, X Yan, JP Regnaux, R Elashoff, B Bussel, B Dobkin; Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2006, 20(2)
A biomechanical model was used to compute lower extremity joint kinematics over a short walkway. Surface EMG was acquired with the (Biometrics Ltd) DataLOG system using 8 (Biometrics Ltd) SX230 EMG sensors and analysed using (Biometrics Ltd) version 3 Analysis Software.
keywords: EMG SX230 DataLOG LE gait neuro rehabilitation 2006

Powered Ankle Foot OrthosesThe effects of powered ankle foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

G Sawicki, A Domingo, D Ferris; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:3
The goal of this study was to test the effects of robotic assistance in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury using pneumatic powered ankle-foot orthoses. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral ankle, knee, and hip movement.
keywords: Gonio bilateral knee ankle hip LE neuro rehabilitation kinesiology spinal 2006

Increasing the degree of automation in a production system: Consequences for the physical workload

I Balough, K Ohlsson, GA Hansson, T Engstrom, S Skerving; International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 2006, 36:353-365
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used for measuring work postures and movements of the wrists of production line workers in a company processing wooden boards for parquet flooring.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE work evaluation ergonomics 2006

Evaluation of Human Physical and Mental Burdens Regarding Standing Transfer in Individuals with Reduced Lower Limb Strength

Y Toshihiko, T Kumiko, I Hidemi, K Mikiko, F Kimie, T Katsuyuki, M Katsumi; Journal of Human Nursing Studies 2006, vol 3, pg 11-21
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to measure to muscle function.
keywords: EMG SX230 LE work ergonomics 2006

Effect of Blood Lactate Concentration and the Level of Oxygen Uptake Immediately before a Cycling Sprint on Neuromuscular Activation during Repeated Cycling Sprints

R Matsuura, H Ogata, T Yunoki, T Arimitsu, T Yano; Journal of Physiological Anthropology 2006, 25:267-273
Biometrics Ltd SX230 EMG sensors were used to collect lower extremity muscle activity in repeated cycling sprints.
keywords: EMG SX230 LE sports 2006

Multi-axis transmissibility measurements for different vehicle seats

Andrew N Rimell, Neil J Mansfield. 2005. Presented at the 40th United Kingdom Conference on Human Response to Vibration.
This study aimed to document the vibrational effects of machine operator seats, the Biometrics DataLOG unit is used as the supporting instrumentation for all sensors used. All participants were measured before the experiment begun; a sub analysis of seat type is also presented within the results whereby the participants remained constant to ensure a fair comparison.
keywords: DataLOG vibrational analysis ergonomics health and safety 2005

Multi-Axis Transmissibility Measurements for Different Vehicle Seats

Presented at the 40th United Kingdom Conference on Human Response To Vibration – Liverpool UK 13th to15th September 2005
Biometrics Ltd DataLOG and accelerometers used to measure single and multi-axis vibration in vehicle seats.
keywords: DataLOG accelerometers vibration 2005

The effect of total knee arthroplasty on joint movement during functional activities and joint range of motion with particular regard to higher flexion users

PJ Rowe, CM Myles, R Nutton; Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2005, 13(2):131-138
This study used Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers to evaluate active and functional knee excursion of patients before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to determine whether TKA restores quality of life related to functional activities of daily living.
keywords: Gonio M180 knee LE Arthroplasty Orthopedic Surgery 2005

Motor Impairment and Recovery in the Upper Limb After Stroke

L Carey, D Abbott, G Egan, J Bernhardt, G Donnan; Stroke 2005, 36:625-629
In this study finger tapping ability was used as one of the parameters to quantify recovery following stroke. Biometrics Ltd finger goniometers were used to measure the range of active flexion-extension movement of the MCP joint of the index finger.
keywords: Gonio G35 finger mcp UE neuro stroke 2005

Effects of Age and Sex on the Results of an Ankle Plantar-Flexor Manual Muscle Test

MH Jan, HM Chai, YF Lin, JCH Lin, LY Tsai, YC Ou, DH Lin; Physical Therapy October 2005, vol 85, no 10
The ability to perform 20 or more one-leg heel-rises is considered a “normal” grade for muscle strength of the ankle plantar flexors, regardless of age and strength. Because muscle strength is closely related to age and sex, the “normal” test criterion was re-evaluated in different groups categorized by age and sex. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation was used to measure the angle of ankle plantar flexion.
keywords: Gonio sg150 ADU K100 ankle LE physiotherapy 2005

Biomechanical Measurement of Painful Wrist by Flexible Electro-goniometry

JH Chang, HY Hsu, FC Su; Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering 2005, 25(1): 33-37
Wrist pain is a common complaint in hand clinics. Flexible electro-goniometry offers a convenient method to investigate joint kinematics in clinical environment. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer was used to measure wrist circumduction in injured subjects.
keywords: Gonio XM65 wrist UE biomechanics 2005

Distinct basal ganglia territories are engaged in early and advanced motor sequence learning

S Lehericy, H Benali, PF Van de Moortele, M Pelegrini-Issac, T Waechter, k Ugurbil, J Doyon; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005, vol 102, no 35
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and ADU 301 Angle Display Unit were used to measure the amplitude of the subjects' finger movements before and after training in this study of changes to brain function during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger movements over a month of training.
keywords: Gonio F35 ADU finger UE brain research 2005

Age Differences in knee extension power, contractile velocity, and fatigability

J Petrella, JS Kim, C Tuggle, S Hall, M Bamman; Journal of Applied Physiology 2005, 98:211-220
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in knee extension strength, power, and fatigue using open- and closed-chain testing procedures. Knee position and flexion/extension movement was measured using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and neural activity of the right knee extensors was measured for each of three superficial quadriceps muscles using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors. EMG were digitized at 1000 Hz and electrogoniometer inputs at 500 Hz, and data from each input were analyzed simultaneously using Biometrics Ltd DataLINK with software version 2.0.
keywords: Gonio SG150 EMG SX230 DataLINK knee LE applied physiology 2005

Effects of Passive Ankle and Knee Joint Motions on the Length of Fascicle and Tendon of the Medial Gastrocnemius

T Wakahara, J Ushiyama, H Kanehisa, Y Kawakami, T Fukunaga; International Journal of Sport and Health Science 2005, vol 3, 75-82
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the angles of ankle (SG110A) and knee (SG150) joints in this study of lower extremity biomechanics.
keywords: Gonio SG150 SG110A knee ankle LE biomechanics sports 2005

Multi-transducer Data Logger for Worksite Measurement of Physical Workload

YP Liu, HC Chen, CY Chen; Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering 2005, 26(1):12-28
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and EMG sensors were used for onsite measurement of the physical workload of workers, including head and neck of a truck driver and wrist and forearm of a punch press operator.
keywords: Gonio EMG SX230 head neck wrist UE workplace ergonomics 2005

Effect of Movement FrequencyThe Effect of Movement Frequency on Interlimb Coupling During Recumbent Stepping

PC Kao, D Ferris; Motor Control 2005, 9:144-163
Six Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to record hip, knee, and ankle joint angles bilaterally.
keywords: Gonio bilateral hip knee ankle LE gait rehabilitation 2005

Alternate Leg Movement Amplifies Locomotor-Like Muscle Activity in Spinal Cord Injured Persons

N Kawashima, D Nozaki, MO Abe, M Akai, K Nakazawa; Journal of Neurophysiology 2005, 93:777-785
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used in this study using a passive locomotion device in spinal cord injury patients.
keywords: Gonio ankle hip LE neurophysiology spinal cord injury 2005

The effect of limb support on muscle activation during shoulder exercises

M Wise, T Uhl, C Mattacola, A Nitz, W Kiber; Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2004, Vol 13, No 6
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in demands on glenohumeral musculature during unsupported and supported active range of motion (AROM) shoulder exercises. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer was used to measure shoulder range of motion of each exercise.
keywords: Gonio shoulder UE rehabilitation 2004

Motion Enslaving Among Multiple Fingers of the Human Hand

ZM Li, S Dun, D Harkness, T Brininger; Motor Control 2004, 8, 1-15
The purpose of this study was to examine motion enslaving characteristics of multiple fingers during isolated flexion of the distal interphalangeal joints. Four Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers connected to a Biometrics Ltd K100 were used to measure the angular motion of the joints.
keywords: Gonio G35 K100 finger UE orthopedics movement analysis 2004

Motor skill training induces changes in the excitability of the leg cortical area in healthy humans

M. Perez, B Lungholt, K Nyborg, J Nielsen; Experimental Brain Research 2004, 159:197-205
Training induced changes in cortical excitability may play an important role in rehabilitation of gait in patients with neurological disorders. This study investigated the effect of a 32 minute period of motor skill, non-skill, and passive training involving the ankle muscles on leg motor cortical excitability in healthy humans. Ankle movement was measured using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer.
keywords: Gonio ankle LE brain research neuro rehabilitation gait 2004

Measurements of wrist and forearm positions and movements: effect of, and compensation for, goniometer crosstalk

GA Hansson, I Balogh, K Ohlsson, S Skerfving; Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 2004, 14:355-367
A Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and torsiometer were mounted in a jig to simulate the biomechanics of the wrist and forearm.
keywords: Gonio XM110 torsiometer Z110 wrist forearm UE kinesiology 2004

Neural coupling between upper and lower limbs during recumbent stepping

H Huang, D Ferris; Journal of Applied Physiology 2004, 97:1299-1308
In this study Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral hip, knee and ankle movements.
keywords: Gonio knee ankle hip bilateral LE physiology biomechanics gait 2004

Stumbling corrective responses during treadmill-elicited stepping in human infants

T Lam, C Wolstenholme, M van der Linden, M Pang, J Yang; Journal of Physiology 2003, 553:319-331
This study examined stumbling corrective (tripping) responses to mechanical disturbances applied to the foot during stepping in 33 healthy human infants ages 5-13 months. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the hip and knee movement.
keywords: Gonio hip knee LE infants gait physiology 2003

The Immediate Effects of a Cervical Lateral Glide Treatment Technique in Patients with Neurogenic Cervicobrachial Pain

MW Coppieters, KH Stappaerts, LL Wouters, K Janssens, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2003, vol 33, no 7, 369-377
The available ROM during neurodynamic testing is frequently used to appraise the mechanosensitivity and extensibility of the nervous system and in this study was used as the principal outcome measure. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer was used to measure the elbow ROM.
keywords: Gonio elbow M180 UE PT research sports 2003

Aberrant Protective Force Generation During Neural Provocation Testing and the Effect of Treatment in Patients with Neurogenic Cervicobrachial Pain

MW Coppieters, KH Stappaerts, LL Wouters, K Janssens; Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 2003, vol 26, no 2, pp 99-106
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation used in this study to analyze whether aberrations in shoulder girdle-elevation force during neural tissue provocation testing for the median nerve can be demonstrated, and whether possible aberrations can be normalized following cervical mobilization.
keywords: Gonio elbow M180 K100 UE PT research 2003

Highly Repetitive Work Operations in a Modern Milking System, A Case Study of Wrist Positions and Movements in a Rotary System

M Stal, S Pinzke, GA Hansson, C Kolstrup; Ann Agriculture Environmental Medicine 2003, 10:67-72
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation in the ergonomics study of milkers while working in a modern rotary milking system.
keywords: Gonio XM65 M110 bilateral wrist UE ergonomics 2003

The use of continuous exposure data for predicting CTS in fish processing operators

K Babski-Reeves, L Crumption-Young; Ergonomics 2003, vol 46, no 7, 747-759
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation was used in this ergonomics study of 53 workers in a fish processing facility.
keywords: Gonio wrist XM65 forearm Z110 Datalogger UE ergonomics 2003

A biomechanical investigation into the validity of the modified Ashworth Scale as a measure of elbow spasticity

Anand D Pandyan, Christopher IM Price, Michael P Barnes, Garth R Johnson; Clinical Rehabilitation 2003; 17: 290-294
In this study, blind resistance to passive movement measurements are taken using the Biometrics Ltd goniometer along with a force transducer; data is then graded using the Ashworth Scale and Modified Ashworth Scale, all subjects are stroke patient volunteers. An investigation comparing the non-impaired arm with the impaired arm is presented as a sub analysis. Results are discussed following a statistical analysis to confirm the validity of the Ashworth scale with respect to biomechanical data.
keywords: Spasticity elbow goniometer Modified Ashworth Scale

The Effects of Range of Motion Therapy on the Plantar Pressures of patients with Diabetes Mellitus

J R Goldsmith, R H Lidtke, S Shott; Journal Of American Podiatric Medical Association Vol 92 No 9 October 2002
Biometrics Ltd goniometers used to measure ankle joint position prior to and during exercise therapy to increase joint mobility and reduce plantar pressures in diabetic patients.
keywords: Goniometer Ankle Diabetes exercise therapy LE 2002

The Effect of Trager Therapy on the Level of Evoked Stretch Responses in Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Rigidity

Christian Duval, Denis Lafontaine, Jacques Hébert, Alain Leroux, Michel Panisset, Jean P. Boucher. (2002) Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Volume 25, Number 7
All subjects participating in this study suffer from Parkinson's Disease, a Trager therapy session was administered to all subjects by a licensed therapist. A Biometrics Ltd goniometer was placed on the most rigid hand (last digit and wrist) to analyse joint movement in the initial rigidity tests as well as the following two posttests (post therapy)
keywords: Goniometer Parkinson's Disease Rigidity Trager Therapy 2002

Sensory Gating for the initiation of the Swing Phase in Different Directions of Human Infant Stepping

M Pang, J Yang; The Journal of Neuroscience 2002, 22(13):5734-5740
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure hip position in 37 infants between the ages of 5 and 13 months.
keywords: Gonio hip LE infants proprioception gait 2002

Are we underestimating the clinical efficacy of botulinum toxin (type A)? Quantifying changes in spasticity, strength and upper limb function after injections of Botox to the elbow flexors in a unilateral stroke population

A Pandyan, P Vuadens, F van Wijck, S Stark, G Johnson, M Barnes; Clinical Rehabilitation 2002, 16:654-660
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer incorporated into a measurement system to quantify the clinical efficacy of botulinum toxin type A in treating elbow spasticity in a unilateral stroke population.
keywords: Gonio elbow UE Botox stroke research clinical rehabilitation 2002

Trunk movements and load support strategy in a simulated handling tasks carried out by workers with and without musculoskeletal symptoms

HG Coury, R Padula; Clinical Biomechanics 2002, 17:309-311
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and instrumentation used in this study to compare two groups of workers with and without upper limb musculoskeletal symptoms when simulating handling tasks, regarding trunk movements and load support.
keywords: Gonio trunk XM150B DL1001 biomechanics ergonomics 2002

Exercise can reverse quadriceps sensorimotor dysfunction that is associated with rheumatoid arthritis without exacerbating disease activity

LM Bearne, DL Scott, MV Hurley, Rheumatology 2002; 41:157-166
The objective of this study was to compare quadriceps sensorimotor function, lower limb functional performance and disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy subjects, and to investigate the efficacy and safety of a brief rehabilitation program. Proprioception acuity was estimated from the acuity of reproduction of knee joint position sense measured with a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer.
keywords: Gonio knee LE arthritis rheumatology exercise 2002

Reliability of detecting “onset of pain” and “submaximal pain” during neural provocation testing of the upper quadrant

M Coppieters, K Stappaerts, K Janssens, G Jull; Physiotherapy Research International 2002, 7(3): 146-156
The range of elbow extension in both the laboratory and clinical conditions was measured with Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and instrumentation in this study.
keywords: Gonio elbow M180 K100 UE PT research 2002

Positioning in Anesthesiology: Toward a Better Understanding of Stretch-induced Perioperative Neuropathies

M Coppieters, M Van de Velde, K Stappaerts; Anestiesiology 2002, 97:75-81
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation were used to measure wrist and elbow motion with four variations of the brachial plexus tension test.
keywords: Gonio wrist M110 elbow M180 K100 UE PT research in surgery 2002

Validation of Flexible Electrogoniometry as a measure of Joint Kinematics

PJ Rowe, CM Myles, SJ Hillmann, ME Hazlewood; Physiotherapy Sept 2001, vol 87, no9 :479-488
The measurement of the Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometer were investigated using a series of controlled experiments including comparison to a TV motion analysis system while measuring knee movement during gait.
keywords: Gonio K100 DL1001 M180 LE knee validity gait 2001

Movement of the knee in osteoarthritis: the use of electrogoniometry to assess function

Movement of the knee in osteoarthritis: the use of electrogoniometry to assess function
This study 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers concluded: “Electrogoniometry is relatively inexpensive, can be performed in a normal clinical setting with minimal inconvenience to the patient, and may prove to be a valuable objective tool for comparative evaluation of different prostheses or surgical techniques for total knee replacement.”
keywords: Gonio M180 bilateral knee LE reliability biomechanics arthritis 2001

Interlimb co-ordination in human infant stepping

M Pang, J Yang; The Journal of Physiology 2001, 533:617-625
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure hip movement in twenty-eight infants aged from 4 to 12 months.
keywords: Gonio hip LE infants physiology 2001

Shoulder girdle elevation during neurodynamic testing: an assessable sign?

MW Coppieters, KH Stappaerts, FF Staes, DG Everaert; Manual Therapy 2001, 6(2) 88-96
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation were used to measure the ROM of the wrist and elbow during this study to measure shoulder girdle elevation force during neural tissue provocation tests of the median nerve.
keywords: Gonio wrist M110 elbow M180 K100 UE PT research 2001

Addition of Test Components During Neurodynamic Testing: Effect on Range of Motion and Sensory Responses

MW Coppieters, KH Stappaerts, DG Everaert, FF Staes; Journal of Orthopedics & Sports Physical Therapy 2001; 31(5): 226-237
In this study to analyze the impact of different components of the neural tissue provocation test for the median nerve on the range of motion of the elbow and wrist and the sensory responses elicited by the test. Wrist and elbow range of motion was measured with Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation.
keywords: Gonio wrist M110 elbow M180 K100 UE PT research 2001

Biomechanical examination of a commonly used measure of spasticity

A.D.Pandyan, C.I.M.Price, H.Rogers, M.P.Barnes, G.R.Johnson; Clinical Biomechanics 16 (2001) 859-865
Biometrics Ltd goniometers are used simultaneously with a force transducer to verify resistance to passive motion. In order to quantify spasticity, blind data from the resistance to passive motion test is used together with the Modified Ashworth Scale to identify the “catch” phenomenon. Findings regarding the relationship between the Modified Ashworth Scale and patient resistance to passive motion are presented. A statistical analysis is documented comparing the impaired arm with the non-impaired arm of participants in this study.
keywords: Spasticity Modified Ashworth Scale elbow goniometer speed range of motion stroke

Effects of progressive levels of industrial automation on force and repetitive movements of the wrist

Effects of progressive levels of industrial automation on force and repetitive movements of the wrist
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used with a Biometrics Ltd datalogger to record wrist movements of workers in a multinational company for producing office products. A Biometrics Ltd P100 Pinchmeter was used for recording the maximum pinch strength and the job simulated pinch strength.
keywords: Gonio XM75 torsiometer Z180 DL1001 P100 UE ergonomics 2000

Coactivation of the antagonist muscle does not covary with steadiness in old adults

R Burnett, D Laidlaw, R Enoka; Journal of Applied Physiology 2000, 89:61-71
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between steadiness and activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles during isometric and anisometric contractions. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and K100 amplifier were used measure the index finger abduction/adduction as part of the quantification of the steadiness.
keywords: Gonio K100 finger UE applied physiology geriatrics 2000

Impact of physical exposure on neck and upper limb disorders in female workers

GA Hansson, I Balogh, K Ohlsson, B Palsson, L Rylander, S Skerving; Applied ergonomics 2000, 31:301-310
Wrist positions and movements were recorded bilaterally, for both the flexion/extension and the deviation angles using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and datalogger.
keywords: Gonio wrist DL1001 UE ergonomics 2000

Verification of selected anatomical landmarks used as reference points for universal goniometer positioning during knee joint mobility range measurements

P Szuic, J Lewandowski, B Marecki; Medical Science Monitor 2000, 7(2): 312-315
In this study Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer was used as the accurate and reliable measurement to validate knee position measurements with a universal goniometer.
keywords: Gonio knee LE anatomy reliability 2000

Dynamic Knee Extensor ExerciseTotal power output generated during dynamic knee extensor exercise at different contraction frequencies

R Ferguson, P Aagaard, D Ball, A Sargeant, J Bangsbo; Journal of Applied Physiology 2000, 89:1912-1918
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to for continuous measurement of knee joint angle and the angle between the lower limb and the connecting bar attached to the pedal arm of an ergometer.
keywords: Gonio knee XM180 LE physiology 2000

Intentional on-line adaption of stride length in human walking

E Varraine, M Bonnard, J Pailhous; Experimental Brain Research 2000, 130:248-257
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral hip, knee and ankle movements and posture.
keywords: Gonio hip knee ankle bilateral LE gait brain research 2000

Transient Disturbances to One Limb Produce Coordinated, Bilateral Responses During Infant Stepping

J Yang, M Stephens, R Vishram; The Journal of Physiology 1998
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the hip movement in infants 3-10 months of age.
keywords: Gonio hip LE infants physiology 1998

Infant stepping: a method to study the sensory control of human walking

J Yang, M Stephens, R Vishram; The Journal of Physiology 1998, 507:927-937
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure hip movement in infants 10 days to 10 months of age.
keywords: Gonio hip LE infants physiology 1998

Intentional on-line control of propulsive forces in human gait

F Danion, M Bonnard, J Pailhous; Experimental Brain Research 1997, 116:525-538
The kinematics of the leg joints, which ensured the displacement of the foot tip, were recorded using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers placed on the hip, knee, and ankle.
keywords: Gonio hip knee ankle LE gait 1997

Quantifying work load in Neck, Shoulders and wrists in Female Dentists

I Akesson, GA Hansson, I Balough, U Moritz, S Skerfving; International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 1997, 69:461-474
Twelve right-handed female dentists (six with and six without a history of definite neck/shoulder disorders, pair-wise matched for age) were studied when performing authentic dental work. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure the wrist movements.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE ergonomics 1997

A Reliability Study of the Universal Goniometer, Fluid Goniometer, and Electrogoniometer for the Measurement of Ankle Dorsiflexion

K Rome, F Cowieson; Foot Ankle International 1996, Vol 17, No. 1, pp 28-32
This study investigated the reliability of three goniometers, the universal, fluid, and Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers, in the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using 10 healthy volunteers and five observers. The results demonstrate that when using a highly standardized procedure, the flexible electrogoniometer was within an accepted criterion for reliability, suggesting good intra device reliability.
keywords: Gonio ankle LE reliability 1996

A New Technique for the Assessment of Wrist Movement Using a Biaxial Flexible Electrogoniometer

M Rawes, J Richardson, J Dias; Journal of Hand Surgery - British and European Volume 1996 21B(5): 600-603
A new electrogoniometer technique, using a Biometrics ltd electrogoniometer, is described for the measurement of wrist movements, including circumduction, with the results being displayed as figures. Clinical validation was performed and the system found to be highly accurate and reliable.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE clinical measurement validity 1996

Goniometer Measurement and Computer Analysis of Wrist Angles and Movements Applied to Occupational Repetitive Work

GA Hansson, I Balogh, K Ohlsson, L Rylander, S Skerfving; Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 1996, Vol 6, No. 1, pp 23-35
This study to gain objective and quantitative information concerning both static and dynamic aspects of workload on the wrist in field studies of fish processing industry workers with highly repetitive work and risk of CTD used a Biometrics Ltd biaxial flexible electrogoniometer and datalogger for recording of flexion and deviation angles of the wrist of the dominant hand. In order to evaluate forearm rotation a Biometrics Ltd torsiometer, sensitive only to rotation and not influenced by flexion or deviation, was attached to the wrist.
keywords: Gonio wrist torsiometer forearm UE ergonomics 1996

Position of the Wrist Associated with the lowest Carpal Tunnel Pressure

Implications for Splint Design; N Weiss, L Gordon, T Bloom, Y So, D Rempel; Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1995 Vol 77-A, No. 11, pp 1695-1699
To determine the position of the wrist that results in the lowest carpal tunnel pressure, twenty control subjects and four patients who had carpal tunnel syndrome were evaluated with use of a new, dynamic method that continuously measures carpal tunnel pressure throughout the range of motion of the wrist. A Biometrics Ltd two-axis electrogoniometer was used to measure continuously the flexion or extension angle as well as the radial or ulnar deviation of the wrist.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE clinical measurement 1995

The Use of Therapeutic Electrical Stimulation in the treatment of Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

M Hazelwood, J Brown, P Rowe, P Salter; Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1994, 36:661-673
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and footswitches were used in this study to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation of the anterior tibial muscles of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy on the gait pattern and the range of active and passive lower extremity movement. dorsiflexion of the ankle. Foot switches were placed under the sole and heel of the foot and simultaneously recorded the pattern of contact of the foot with the floor so that the temporal parameters of the gait cycle could be analyzed. The use of electrogoniometers for gait analysis proved successful, and could provide therapists and physicians with a relatively cheap and versatile means of quantitatively monitoring gait pattern and the effects of therapy.
keywords: Gonio knee ankle footswitches LE gait pediatrics 1994

Single Case Experiment to Investigate a Short Term Stretching Programme for Ankle Equinus

K Rome, A Clark; British Journal of Podiatric Medicine 1994, 49(2): 19-23
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used in this study is to evaluate a short term stretching programme for ankle equinus, using a high load, brief stretch technique. The single case study has demonstrated the flexible electrogoniometer as a reliable instrument which is easy to use in the clinical setting.
keywords: Gonio ankle LE podiatry 1994

Disorders of the Neck and Upper Limbs in Women in the Fish Processing Industry

K Ohlsson, GA Hansson, I Balough, U Stromberg, B Palsson, C Norander, L Rylander, S Skerfving; Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1994, 51: 826-832
Wrist angles of the dominant hand were measured for 32 randomly selected women during a total of 40 representative 20 minute work periods. A Biometrics Ltd twin axis electrogoniometer and a Datalogger were used for recording the flexion and extension, and the deviation angles of the wrist. The angular distributions, the angular velocity distributions, and the power spectra, were calculated to characterize the wrist movements during work.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE ergonomics work eval 1994

Reliability of Hindfoot Goniometry when Using a Flexible Electrogoniometer

P Ball, G Johnson; Clinical Biomechanics 1993; 8: 13-19
This paper describes the use of an Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer for clinical assessment of subtalar motion and examines the important aspects of the clinical procedure.
keywords: Gonio ankle LE clinical measurement biomechanics reliability 1993

Clinical Methods of Goniometry: a Comparative Study

J Goodwin, C Clark, J Deakes, D Burdon, C Lawrence; Disability and Rehabilitation 1992; Vol 14, No.1; pp 10-15
This investigation compared the reliability and interchangeable use of three currently available goniometers - a universal goniometer, a fluid goniometer, and a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer. Three consecutive readings of the active range of movement of the right elbow joint were taken from each of 23 healthy female volunteers; three experienced observers each used each type of goniometer on two occasions. Significant intertester differences were found to exist for both the universal and fluid goniometers. However, no significant differences were found between any of the testers with respect to the electrogoniometer. It therefore appears reasonable to suggest that, with respect to reducing intertester differences, the electrogoniometer is preferable.
keywords: Gonio elbow UE reliability clinical measurement 1992

Dynamic Analysis of Wrist Circumduction: a New Application of the Biaxial Flexible Electrogoniometer

H Ojima, S Miyake, M Kumashiro, H Togami, S Meng, K Suzuki; Clinical Biomechanics 1991; 6: no 4; 221-229
This paper shows the reliability and validity of Biometrics Ltd biaxial electrogoniometric analysis in the quantification of wrist circumduction. The reliability tests demonstrated sufficient accuracy of the device. Also, validity of the measurement was recognized because the tests simulating wrist circumduction and cineradiography revealed that it could accurately detect the angle between the long axis of the forearm and the third metacarpal bone.
keywords: Gonio wrist UE reliability circumduction biomechanics 1991

Measurement of Joint Motion

A Nicol; Clinical Rehabilitation 1989, 3: 1-9
This paper is about the development of the Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and its clinical applications: The device is very lightweight and the electrogoniometers can be worn beneath clothing, so the subject can move without inhibition. ...Tests using angular motion of the hip and knee joints...assessment of gait ...gait of amputees and patients cerebral palsy...assessing the postoperative performance of arthritic patients receiving the Souter-Strathclyde elbow prosthesis. It can be seen that electrogoniometers can provide information otherwise not available in a clinical environment.
keywords: Gonio hip knee LE clinical measurements gait reliability 1989

Flexible Goniometer Computer System for the Assessment of Hip Function - The Clinical Biomechanics Award 1988

P Rowe, A Nicol, I Kelly; Clinical Biomechanics 1988, 4:68-72
Biometrics Ltd flexible electrogoniometers were used to record the motion of both hips and knees in total hip replacement patients. Four flexible electrogoniometers are used to measure the flexion-extension angles of both hips and both knees. The electrogoniometer system has proved capable of quantifying the functional status of hip replacement patients simply and economically within the clinical environment.
keywords: Gonio hip knee bilateral LE biomechanics gait 1988

Ambulatory Monitoring of the Pressures Beneath Compression Bandages

S Sockalingham, J Barbenel, D Queen; CARE Science and Practice, vol 8, no 2: 75-79
An integrated study on the performance of bandages which related pressures generated by the bandages to mechanical laboratory tests has highlighted the influence of posture on the interface pressures generated by these devices. The continuous ambulatory pressure monitoring system consisted of three elements, the pressure sensing device, a Biometrics Ltd goniometer to determine the position of the leg, and the Biometrics Ltd Datalogger for recording the output of the measuring devices. The goniometer allowed the stand/sit/lie sequence to be identified relatively easily. The effect of posture was also seen in the long-term measurements.
keywords: Gonio knee Datalogger LE