Research Using Biometrics Ltd Sensors and Instrumentation in USA
Keywords: 2017, Neuro, Gait, EMG, USA
Michael N. Poppo, Emily M. McCain, Taylor J.M. Dick, Katherine R. Saul, Gregory S. Sawicki; 41st Annual Meeting of the Americal Society of Biomechanics, Boulder CO, USA 2017
A Biometrics Ltd EMG system was used to collect the data in this study of assistive walking exoskeletons.
Keywords: 2017, Goniometer, Upper Extremity, USA
Reva E. Johnson, Konrad P. Kording, Levi J. Hargrove, Jonathon W. Sensinger; Plos ONE 12(3): e0170473, https://doi.org/10.1317/journal.pone.0170473
In this study, the non-amputee subjects used elbowextension to move a cursor with different control interfaces. A Biometrics Ltd goniometer was used to measure the elbow angle in the joint angle control interface.
Keywords: 2017, USA, Goniometer, Spinal, Upper Extremity, Neurology
Stephen P. Estes, Jennifer A. Iddings,Edelle C. Field-Fote; Frontiers in Neurology, February 2017, Volume 8, Article 17
Biometrics Ltd SG150 goniometer connected to a third party EMG system was used a part of the quantification of lower extremity spasticity in spinal cord injury patients pre and post 4 different non-pharmacological interventions.
Keywords: USA, DataLOG MWX8, EMG, Upper Extremity, movement abnormality, Clinical Applications, 2015
F. Lunardini, S. Maggioni, C. Casellato, M. Bertucco, A. L. G. Pedrocchi, T. D. Sanger. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (2015) 12:52
An 8 channel Biometrics EMG system is used to determine the upper limb muscle activity used to complete a drawing task. The subject population comprises children suffering from dystonia as well as healthy age-matched individuals. Results are presented and discussed to help characterise and better understand motor performance in children with dystonia.
Keywords: USA, EMG, Gait Analysis, Clinical Applications, 2015
A. E. Westbrook, G. S. Sawicki
This study utilises Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors for gait analysis with biofeedback. Muscle activity is used to trigger an audible and vibrational alarm to both reward and help correct the subject under test conditions. Results are discussed and conclude that this setup could positively impact rehabilitation practice if used regularly in impaired populations.
Keywords: USA, EMG, Sport, Health & Exercise Science, Biomechanics, 2015
T.W. Nesser, N. Fleming, M. J. Gage. International Journal of Kinesiology & Sports Science, Vol. 3, No. 4; October 2015
Biometrics Goniometers are used in this study to identify phases of the movement cycle. Goniometers synchronously record joint angle data from the hip, knee and elbow of subjects during each exercise session. Data from other measured parameters is synchronised with this Goniometer data to identify at which phase in the movement cycle core muscles are activated and which exercises are best for core muscle training.
Keywords: K800 Amplifier EMG Experimental Control Clinical Applications Neurology USA 2014
Alexander Opitz, Wynn Legon, Jerel Mueller, Aaron Barbour, Walter Paulus, William J. Tyler. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2014; 8: 1043.
Surface EMG is monitored throughout this study, to quantify the intensity of electrical pulses, using the Biometrics Ltd surface EMG sensor connected to the Biometrics Ltd K800 Amplifier. This surface EMG data is presented alongside EEG data from each experimental setup and the results are discussed.
Keywords: EMG DataLINK Ergonomics Upper Extremity DataLINK Analysis Software Fatigue USA 2014
Megan O. Conrad, Richard W. Marklin. J Ergonomics. Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorder 2014, S4:006
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors are used to quantify which of the two Motorcycle clutch designs tested are the easiest to use. Muscle fatigue data is calculated within the DataLINK Analysis software by applying the Median Frequency filter to the raw EMG data. Muscle fatigue data is presented along with other measured parameters and discussed, the study concludes that muscle fatigue data is fundamental to assess the ergonomics of similar controls.
Keywords: Goniometers Prosthetics Elbow Extension Upper Extremity Neurology Clinical Applications USA 2014
Reva E. Johnson, Konrad P. Kording, Levi J. Hargrove, Jonathon W. Sensinger. Fronteirs in Neuroscience 2014; 8: 302
This study aims to determine the relationship between prosthesis control and adaptation behaviour. Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used to quantify joint angle data for the angle control analysis portion of the experiment. Data from this study suggests that skilled and co-ordinated movement is possible with improved prosthesis control systems.
Keywords: EMG DataLINK Parkinson's Disease Muscle Activation Clinical Applications Lower Extremity Neurology USA 2014
Amir Pourmoghaddam, Marius Dettmer, Daniel P. O'Conner, William H. Paloski, Charles S. Layne. Parkinson's disease Volume 2015, Article iD: 497825
Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors were applied to the subject population throughout the duration of this study. EMG sensors were connected to the DataLINK unit where data was exported and analysed using the SYNERGOS technique. All study participants were in the early stages of Parkinson's disease, EMG data was collected before and after taking an anti-Parkinsonian medication so that the relationship between muscle activation and medication can be determined and discussed.
Keywords: DataLINK EMG Upper Limb Ergonomics DataLINK Analysis Software USA 2014
Evanda Henry, Stephanie Richmond, Nashrag Shah, Arijit Sengupta. The XXVIth Annual Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference - El Paso TX, June 5-6, 2014
This study focuses on comparing subject-rated comfort scores with quantified EMG measurements in order to determine the most ergonomical stylus grip. EMG data from Biometrics Ltd EMG electrodes connected to the DataLINK unit are used in this study, all data is analysed using the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK Analysis Software and presented in the results section. This study confirms that EMG data alone is not the only factor contributing to comfort scores.
Keywords: DataLOG Goniometers Knee Extension Biomechanics Lower Extremity Range of Motion Gait Analysis USA 2013
Patricia Teran-Yengle, H. John Yack. 2013. XXIV Congress of the International society of Biomechanics. XV Brazilian Congress of Biomechanics.
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were placed on the knees of study participants, this study aimed to collect knee extension data for a target population over a 6-10 hour period. The Biometrics Ltd DataLOG unit was used to allow for complete data acquisition (save to card mode) while the subjects carried out a typical 'work' day. Data was analysed post collection to quantify knee range of motion and knee extension changes when participating in different activities.
Keywords: DataLOG EMG Resistance Exercise Perfect Push-up Sports ForcePlates DFP4 Upper Extremity Muscle Study USA 2013
Caroline C. Allen, Katie A. Dean, Alan P. Jung, John K. Petrella. 2013 International Journal of Exercise Science 278-288
A multitude of Biometrics ltd sensors are used to conduct this muscle activity study. Subjects (all male) were instructed to perform two different types of push-up, each push-up was performed with the participants' hands on separate Biometrics Ltd ForcePlates. EMG sensors were attached to upper body muscles and both the ForcePlates and EMG sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit. Results are presented comparing the 'regular' push-up with the learned 'perfect' push-up.
Keywords: DataLINK Goniometer Ergonomics Torsiometer EMG Digital Event Marker UE Analysis Software USA 2012
Adam de Laveaga, Michael C. Wadman, Laura Wirth and M. Susan Hallbeck. Work 41 (2012) 4692-4698
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers, Torsiometers and EMG sensors were simultaneously used during this study. All sensors were connected to the DataLINK unit and data was analysed using the DataLINK analysis software. Subjects were instructed to complete several tasks to do with endotracheal intubation; a simulator was used and adjusted to monitor the effects of changing intubation posture.
Keywords: Goniometers DataLINK Analysis Ergonomics Software Wrist Angle Elbow UE Angle Range of Motion Single-Incision Laproscopy Human Factors USA 2012
Bernadette McCrorya, Bethany R. Lowndesa, Laura M. Wirtha, Adam E. de Laveagaa, Chad A. LaGrangeb and M. Susan Hallbeck. Work 41 (2012) 1884-1890
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers (SG65 and SG110) were applied to each subject's dominant wrist and elbow. A surgical simulator set up was used in order to document wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation during LESS (Laproendoscopic Single-Site Surgery). The Goniometers were connected to the Biometrics Ltd DataLINK unit, all data was analysed using the DataLINK analysis software.
Keywords: Lower Back Goniometer Range of Biomechanics Motion Spine Rehabilitation USA 2011
Chet R. Whitley, Janet S. Dufek 2011. International Journal of Exercise Science 4(3) 2011 p192-198
Study participants were instructed to complete a backward walking programme in order to document the effects this would have. A Biometrics Ltd SG150/B Goniometer was placed on each subject's lower back to document their lower back-range of motion over the experimental period. After the experimental period, the range of motion data combined with the flexibility data of individual participants is presented and discussed.
Keywords: DataLOG EMG Gait Analysis Lower Extremity Foot Switches Lower Limb USA 2011
Timothy A Thrasher, John S Ward, Stanley Fisher 2011. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2011, 8:65
Eight Biometrics Ltd Surface EMG sensors are positioned on the lower limbs of each study participant; all sensors were connected to the DataLOG unit including foot switches (inside the subjects' shoes). An exercise protocol is followed including treadmill walking so that a complete gait analysis data set is acquired. This data is manipulated post data acquisition in order to identify rhythmic locomotor patterns.
Keywords: Goniometers Ergonomics DataLOG Pain UE Wrist Finger Injury Flexiforce Sensors DataLOG Software SG65 F35 USA 2011
Rick Hall 2011. Focus on Tomorrow. WorkSafeBC
This study aims to quantify the forces that nurse uses when administering treatment, a comparison between traditional syringes and a prototype syringe is documented. A variety of Biometrics Ltd sensors are simultaneously connected to the DataLOG unit, F35 Goniometers are placed on the fingers while the SG65 is attached to the wrist. Flexiforce sensors are also used with the DataLOG unit, all angle and force data is captured using the DataLOG software. Study participants were instructed to follow the test protocol using each syringe so that results could be compared and discussed.
Keywords: Goniometer Coordination Wrist UE USA 2011
Charles Coey, Manuel Varlet, R.C. Schmidt, Michael J. Richardson. 2011. Experimental Brain Research (2011) 211:483-493
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers are used in this study to document angular wrist changes of two coordination-based experiments. All participants were instructed to carry out 'pendulum swinging' experiments in order to monitor the effects of coordination while under two different test conditions. The Goniometer data is used to present a statistical analysis of the two experiments so that a relationship between interpersonal coordination and intrapersonal coordination.
Keywords: DataLOG Analysis SW Neurology ACL300 Accelerometers Clinical Applications Vibration Bone Density Lower Extremity USA 2011
B Ezenwa, HT Yeoh; Journal Of Rehabilitation Research & Development Volume 48, Number 2, 2011 pages 179 - 190
Biometrics Ltd Accelerometer ACL300 and DataLog with analysis software were used in this study of use of vibration to improve bone density.
Keywords: DataLOG SG150 Goniometer Q150 Torsiometer Analysis Software Biomechanics Cervical Spine Biomechanics USA 2010
C P Miller, J E Bible, K A Jegede, P G Whang, J N Grauer; Spine 2010, 35(26) E1546-E1552
This study used a dynamic motion analysis system comprised of" Biometrics Ltd DataLOG, Goniometer, Torsiometer, and Analysis Software. "This system allows for the accurate calculation of the flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation of the cervical spine.""
Keywords: Goniometer Pain Joint Damage Knee Function USA UK 2009
David T Felson, K Douglas Gross, Michael C Nevitt, Mei Yang, Nancy E Lane, James C Torner, Cora E Lewis, Michael V Hurley. 2009. Arthritis Care and Research Volume 61, Issue 8, pages 1070-1076
All participants of this study either suffered with osteoarthritis in the knee joint or were at high risk of it. Biometrics Ltd Goniometers were attached to the right knee of the subject population in order to document results from the analysis. A guided knee joint angle was held for a predetermined time and recorded, the participants were instructed to recreate this angle from memory and communicate pain ratings. Goniometer data was then combined with radiographic grades.
Keywords: Goniometer Ankle Robot Gait Biomechanics Neurorehabilitation Biomechanics Lower Extremity USA 2009
A Roy, HI Krebs, DJ Williams, CT Bever, LW Forrester, RM Macko, N Hogan; IEEE Transactions On Robotics Vol 25 No 3 June 2009
Biometrics Ltd SG110 Goniometer used to validate accuracy of ankle angle on a robotic ankle rehabilitation system.
Keywords: EMG SX230 Gonio SG110W Contact Switches DataLINK Veterinary Dogs Gait Analysis USA 2009
S Lauer, R Hillman, L Li, G Hosgood; American Journal of Veterinary Research 2009, vol 70, no 5, pp 658-664
Biometrics Ltd Surface EMG sensors, electrogoniometers, contact switches and data acquisition instrumentation were used in this study to determine the effect of various levels of treadmill incline on the muscle activity and joint position/movement in healthy dogs.
Keywords: Goniometer Knee Proprioception Angle Reproducibility Knee Osteoarthritis Quality of Life USA 2008
Chenchen Wang, Christopher H Schmid, Patricia L Hibberd, Robert Kalih, Ronenn Roubenoff, Ramel Rones, Aghogho Okparavero, Timothy McAlindon. 2008 BNC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9:108
This paper details a design protocol for testing treatment of knee osteoarthritis amongst patients. One of the analyses conducted includes applying a Biometrics Ltd Goniometer to the knee joint, patients are guided to a specific angle and then asked to recreate it from memory. The main objective here is to conclude that patients whom regularly practice Tai Chi will have reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis which will have subsequent benefits such as an enhanced quality of life.
Keywords: ACL300 Accelerometers Biomechanics Finger Kinesiology UE USA 2008
A Browne, J Healy, L O'Sullivan; J Appl Biomech 2008 Feb 24(1) 43-50
Biometrics ACL300 used to measure slip force of an object as it was dropped.
Keywords: Gonio ADU Knee Lower Extremity Sports Proprioception Arthritis USA 2008
C Wang, C Schmid, P Hibberd, R Kalish, R Roubenoff, R Rones, A Okparavero, T McAlindon; Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008, 9:108
This study examines the effects of a 12 week Tai Chi program compared with an attention control (wellness education and stretching) on pain, functional capacity, psychosocial variables, joint proprioception and health status in elderly people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Knee proprioception, which is reduced in KOA was measured using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer with a Biometrics Ltd ADU301 angle display unit during each assessment visit.
Keywords: Goniometer SG65 Torsiometer Q150 Ergonomic Risk Saw Mill Workers UE USA 2007
T Jones, S Kumar; NORA Proceedings 2007 p103 -110
Biometrics Ltd Goniometer and Torsiometer used to measure motion of the wrist and forearm whilst subjects hammered saws.
Keywords: Gonio Finger F35 Neurology Elbow UE Clinical Applications Stroke Research USA 2007
T Kline, B Schmidt, D Kamper; Brain 2007, 130(1):159-169
Joint angles of the digits of the impaired hand and angle measurements of the elbow joint on the impaired side were measured with Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers in this study of patterns of interlimb coupling in ten stroke survivors with chronic hand impairment.
Keywords: Gonio SG65 EMG SX230 Wrist Elbow UE Ergonomics in Surgery USA Korea 2007
A Trejo, MC Jung, D Oleynikov, MS Hallbeck; Applied Ergonomics 2007, 38: 745-753
One of the main ergonomic problems associated with laparoscopy is the surgeon's non-neutral position during surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate a laparoscopic tool design by examining the effects of hand posture, target position and monitor angle on physical workload and operation efficiency during both insertion and aim tasks. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure wrist and elbow position. Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors were used to measure muscle activity in forearm and upper arm muscles.
Keywords: Gonio SG110 Thumb UE Ergonomics Clinical Applications Sweden USA 2007
P Jonsson, P Johnson, M Hagberg; Ergonomics 2007, vol 50, issue 5, pg 647-659
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and feasibility of using a Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer for measuring simple thumb movements and concluded that electrogoniometers have utility for studying thumb movements during mobile phone use and may be used to evaluate other thumb-based input devices.
Keywords: SG110 Goniometer Veterinary Reliability Biomechanics USA 2006
Todd M. Thomas, Denis J. Marcellin-Little, Simon C. Roe, B. Duncan X. Lascelles, Bess P. Brosey. American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol67, No. 12, December 2006
This study aims to confirm the differences between measuring joint angle using two Goniometer types; results undergo a final verification step with the help of radiography data. The Biometrics Ltd Goniometer represents one of the Goniometer types and is held against the specified joint of each subject (dog) in order to record the maximum flexion and extension of the joint, this is repeated using the alternate Goniometer. Results are compared within a statistical analysis and discussed.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Lower Extremity Biomechanics Aerospace USA 2006
M Pierre, K Genc, M Litow, B Humphreys, A Rice, C Maender, P Cavanaugh; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:8
Custom made Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were incorporated into a custom built Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit to monitor knee movement in the same subjects on earth and then in space aboard the International Space Station.
Keywords: Gonio Elbow XM110 UE Neurology Motor Control OT Perception USA 2006
M Holubar, M Rice; Australian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2006, 53:35-42
This study aimed to maintain the purposefulness of the occupation - the entire movement of placing the coffee mug on the shelf. The data was collected by using a Biometrics Ltd electronic Goniometer attached across the elbow of the dominant limb.
Keywords: Gonio SG150 Knee Lower Extremity Gait Clinical Applications Biomechanics Movement Analysis USA 2006
J Huddleston, A Alaiti, D Goldvasser, D Scarborough, a Freiberg, H Rubash, H Malchau, W Harris, D Krebs
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation; Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral knee flexion angles for periods of 7-24 hours.
Keywords: EMG SX230 DataLOG Lower Extremity Gait Clinical Applications Neuro Rehabilitation USA 2006
K Saremi, J Marehbian, X Yan, JP Regnaux, R Elashoff, B Bussel, B Dobkin; Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2006, 20(2)
A biomechanical model was used to compute lower extremity joint kinematics over a short walkway. Surface EMG was acquired with the (Biometrics Ltd) DataLOG system using 8 (Biometrics Ltd) SX230 EMG sensors and analysed using (Biometrics Ltd) version 3 Analysis Software.
Keywords: Gonio Bilateral Knee Gait Ankle Hip Lower Extremity Neuro Rehabilitation Kinesiology Spinal USA 2006
G Sawicki, A Domingo, D Ferris; Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2006, 3:3
The goal of this study was to test the effects of robotic assistance in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury using pneumatic powered ankle-foot orthoses. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral ankle, knee, and hip movement.
Keywords: Gonio G35 Finger MCP UE Neuro Clinical Applications Stroke USA Australia 2005
L Carey, D Abbott, G Egan, J Bernhardt, G Donnan; Stroke 2005, 36:625-629
In this study finger tapping ability was used as one of the parameters to quantify recovery following stroke. Biometrics Ltd finger Goniometers were used to measure the range of active flexion-extension movement of the MCP joint of the index finger.
Keywords: Gonio F35 ADU Neurology Finger UE Brain Research USA France Canada 2005
S Lehericy, H Benali, PF Van de Moortele, M Pelegrini-Issac, T Waechter, k Ugurbil, J Doyon; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005, vol 102, no 35
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and ADU 301 Angle Display Unit were used to measure the amplitude of the subjects' finger movements before and after training in this study of changes to brain function during the explicit learning of a sequence of finger movements over a month of training.
Keywords: Gonio SG150 EMG SX230 DataLINK Sports Clinical Applications Knee Lower Extremity Applied Physiology USA 2005
J Petrella, JS Kim, C Tuggle, S Hall, M Bamman; Journal of Applied Physiology 2005, 98:211-220
The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in knee extension strength, power, and fatigue using open- and closed-chain testing procedures. Knee position and flexion/extension movement was measured using Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and neural activity of the right knee extensors was measured for each of three superficial quadriceps muscles using Biometrics Ltd EMG sensors. EMG were digitized at 1000 Hz and electrogoniometer inputs at 500 Hz, and data from each input were analyzed simultaneously using Biometrics Ltd DataLINK with software version 2.0.
Keywords: Gonio Biomechanics Sports Bilateral Hip Neurology Knee Ankle Lower Extremity Gait Rehabilitation USA 2005
Keywords: Gonio Shoulder UE Sports Rehabilitation USA 2004
M Wise, T Uhl, C Mattacola, A Nitz, W Kiber; Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2004, Vol 13, No 6
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in demands on glenohumeral musculature during unsupported and supported active range of motion (AROM) shoulder exercises. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer was used to measure shoulder range of motion of each exercise.
Keywords: Gonio G35 K100 Finger Biomechanics UE Orthopedics Movement Analysis USA 2004
ZM Li, S Dun, D Harkness, T Brininger; Motor Control 2004, 8, 1-15
The purpose of this study was to examine motion enslaving characteristics of multiple fingers during isolated flexion of the distal interphalangeal joints. Four Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers connected to a Biometrics Ltd K100 were used to measure the angular motion of the joints.
Keywords: Gonio Knee Ankle Hip Bilateral Lower Extremity Physiology Biomechanics Gait USA 2004
H Huang, D Ferris; Journal of Applied Physiology 2004, 97:1299-1308
In this study Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers were used to measure bilateral hip, knee and ankle movements.
Keywords: Gonio Wrist XM65 Forearm Z110 Datalogger UE Ergonomics USA 2003
K Babski-Reeves, L Crumption-Young; Ergonomics 2003, vol 46, no 7, 747-759
Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers and instrumentation was used in this ergonomics study of 53 workers in a fish processing facility.
Keywords: Goniometer Ankle Clinical Applications Diabetes Exercise Therapy Lower Extremity USA 2002
J R Goldsmith, R H Lidtke, S Shott; Journal Of American Podiatric Medical Association Vol 92 No 9 October 2002
Biometrics Ltd Goniometers used to measure ankle joint position prior to and during exercise therapy to increase joint mobility and reduce plantar pressures in diabetic patients.
Keywords: Gonio K100 Finger UE Neurology Applied Physiology Geriatrics USA 2000
R Burnett, D Laidlaw, R Enoka; Journal of Applied Physiology 2000, 89:61-71
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between steadiness and activation of the agonist and antagonist muscles during isometric and anisometric contractions. Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometer and K100 amplifier were used measure the index finger abduction/adduction as part of the quantification of the steadiness.
Keywords: Gonio Ankle Lower Extremity Reliability Biomechanics UK USA 1996
K Rome, F Cowieson; Foot Ankle International 1996, Vol 17, No. 1, pp 28-32
This study investigated the reliability of three Goniometers, the universal, fluid, and Biometrics Ltd electrogoniometers, in the measurement of ankle dorsiflexion. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed using 10 healthy volunteers and five observers. The results demonstrate that when using a highly standardized procedure, the flexible electrogoniometer was within an accepted criterion for reliability, suggesting good intra device reliability.
Keywords: Gonio Wrist UE Clinical Applications Clinical Measurement USA 1995
Implications for Splint Design; N Weiss, L Gordon, T Bloom, Y So, D Rempel; Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1995 Vol 77-A, No. 11, pp 1695-1699
To determine the position of the wrist that results in the lowest carpal tunnel pressure, twenty control subjects and four patients who had carpal tunnel syndrome were evaluated with use of a new, dynamic method that continuously measures carpal tunnel pressure throughout the range of motion of the wrist. A Biometrics Ltd two-axis electrogoniometer was used to measure continuously the flexion or extension angle as well as the radial or ulnar deviation of the wrist.